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Flashcards in A - Risk Factors Deck (9):

What is a Risk Factor?

Any variable that increases the chances of a particular behaviour occurring or makes an individual more vulnerable to developing that behaviour


What are the 4 major risk factors for addictive behaviour?



Why is Age a risk factor?

Due to brain function - the pre-frontal cortex is not fully developed and this governs impulisivity (quick decisions), dopamine levels naturally dip around adolescence and then rise again in adulthood (need a behaviour to make up for this dip)


What is wrong with Shrams research on Age?

Rats are not aware (as far as we know) of the long term damage that may occur from using cigarettes or of the disapproval of their parents/friends of the behaviour - may reduce smoking in adolescent


Why is Peers a risk factor?

Influence on our behaviour through: peer pressure, ingroup-outgroup, social learning theory (models)


Why is Personality a risk factor?

Based on Eysenecks personality theory
Links have been found between addiction and neuroticism (anxious, worrying), psychoticism (unempatheic, uncaring) and extraversion (sociable, impulsive)


Name 2 weaknesses of Terreciana's study

1. Most samples used in drug dependency research are ex/current addicts from treatment centres - so their neuroticism could be due to withdrawal symptoms rather than part of their personality
2. Studies that correlate behaviour with personality cannot show cause and effect


Why is Stess a risk factor?

Some people are more vulnerable to the effects of stress and believe that addictive behaviours help them to cope
Traumatic life events can lead to addiction


What idea does against Stress?

There's a paradox - research indicates that smoking biologically increases stress levels