Abdomen Tables Flashcards Preview

Clinical Assessment 2 > Abdomen Tables > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Tables Deck (89):
1

Abdominal pain that is poorly localized periumbilical (mild but increasing) then move to RLQ (steady and severe)

Acute appendicits

2

Abdominal pain that is in the RUQ and may radiate to the right scapula. Is steady and aching.

Acute Cholecysitis

3

Where would someone feel pain with a small bowel obstruction?

Periumbilical or upper abdominal

4

Where would someone feel pain with a colon obstruction?

Lower abdominal or generalized

5

What type pain is epigastric or RUQ; may radiate to the right scapula. It is steady, aching and not colicky.

Biliary Colic

6

What two types of abdominal pain are steady and deep?

Chornic pancreatitis
Cancer of the pancreas

7

What type abdominal pain is felt in the left lower quadrant?

Acute diverticulitis

8

What type pain is felt in the chest or epigastric and has a burning quality?

GERD

9

Where is pain from stomach cancer often felt?

"cardia" and GE junction; also in distal stomach

10

What type abdominal pain is in the epigastric (may radiate to back) and have a variable quality including gnawing, burning, aching, pressing, hungerlike.

Peptic Ulcer and Dyspepsia

11

Most cancers of the stomach and pancreas present as?

Adenocarcinoma

12

What type pain is due to a sudden obstruction of the cystic duct or common bile duct by a gallstone?

Biliary Colic

13

What type abdominal pain is due to blood supply to the bowel and messentery being blocked or reduced?

Mesenteric Ischemia

14

What type ulcer is more likely to cause pain that wakes a person up and night and occurs intermittently over a few weeks, disappears, then recurs?

Duodenal ulcer

15

What type pain has a rapid onset over a few minutes to several hours and often recurs.

Biliary Colic

16

Alcohol, heavy, or fatty meals often aggravates this type of abdominal pain

Chronic pancreatitis

17

leaning forward with trunk flexed might help with these three types of abdominal pain.

Acute pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis
Cancer of the pancreas

18

What type of abdominal pain is not relieved by food or antacids?

Cancer of the stomach

19

3 reasons constipation can be caused by life styles and habits.

1. Inadequate time or setting for defecation reflex
2. False expectations of bowel habits
3. Diet deficient in fiber

20

What are the three types of IBS?

1. Predominately diarrhea
2. Predominately constipation
3. Mixed

21

What type of constipation shows signs of bleeding, pencil shaped stools, weight loss?

Cancer of the rectum or sigmoid colon

22

What type of constipation is due to a large, firm, immovable fecal mass and presents with rectal fullness. Commonly seen in bed-ridden patients.

Fecal impaction

23

What are three metabolic conditions that can lead to constipation?

Pregnancy
Hypothyroidism
Hypercalcemia

24

How long does acute diarrhea last for?

Less than or equal to 14 days

25

How long does chronic diarrhea last for?

Greater than or equal to 30 days

26

This type of diarrhea is loose to watery often with blood, pus or mucous. It is due to colonization or invasion of intestinal mucosa.

Inflammatory infection (acute diarrhea)

27

This type of diarrhea is due to infection by virus, preformed bacterial toxins and is watery without blood, pus, or mucous.

Secretory infection (non-inflammatory)
Acute diarrhea

28

What are drugs that cause drug induced diarrhea?

Magnesium-containing antacids
Antibiotics
Antineoplastic agents
Laxatives

29

Soft to watery diarrhea, often containing blood. Due to inflammation of mucosa and submucosa or rectum. Typically extends proximally from the rectum.

Ulcerative colitis

30

Small, soft to loose or water diarrhea. Usually free of blood. Due to inflammation of bowel wall, generally in a skipping pattern.

Crohn's Disease

31

What is Crohn's disease of the small bowel known as?

Regional enteritis

32

What is Crohn's disease of the colon known as?

Granulomatous colitis

33

Diarrhea from lactose intolerance is usually

Watery diarrhea of large volume

34

Secretory diarrhea can be caused by?

A variety of things: bacterial infection, fat or bile malabsorption

35

What is the passage of black, tarry (sticky and shiny) stools. Involves a loss of at least 60 mL of blood.

Melena

36

In these disorders, melena usually occurs along with epigastric discomfort.

Gastritis, GERD, peptic ulcer (gastric or duodenal)

37

In these disorders, melena occurs along with recent ingestion of alcohol, aspirin, or other anti-inflammatory drugs; recent bodily trauma, severe burns, surgery, or increase ICP.

Gastritis or stress ulcers

38

What are black, nonsticky stools a result of?

Ingestion of iron, bismuth salts, licorice, or even chocolate cookies.

39

What is the name for red blood in the stools?

Hematochezia

40

Hematochezia with a change in bowel habits and weight loss is often due to what?

Colon cancer

41

What are reddish, but nonbloody stools often due to?

Ingestion of beets

42

What can cause an increase in urinary frequency?

infection, tumor, foreign body
Infiltration by scar tissue of a tumor
Motor disorder of CNS (stroke)

43

If polyluria occurs with severe thirst and polydipsisia what hormone might there be a deficiency of?

ADH or the kidensy may be unresponsive to ADH

44

What are some fluid-retaining , edematous states that can lead to nocturia?

Hearth failure
Nephrotic syndrome
Hepatic cirrhosis with ascites
CVI

45

What type of urinary incontinence is when the urethral spinchter is weakened so an increase in bladder pressure is greater than urethral pressure. Often due to weak pelvis floor in women. In men may follow prostatic surgery.

Stress incontinence

46

What type of incontinence is due to detrusor contractions being stronger than normal, small bladder, decreased cortical inhibition of detrusor contractions, hyperexctibatily of sensory pathways, deconditioning of voiding reflexes (frequently voluntary voiding at low volumes)

Urge incontinence

47

Name the type of incontinence. Detrusor contractions are insufficient to overcome urethral resistance. Bladder is usually large. Often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia, or impaired bladder sensation that interrupts the reflex arc (diabetic neuropathy)

Overflow incontinence

48

Name the type of incontinence. There is a functional inability to get to the toliet in time because of impaired health or environmental conditions. Problems in mobility from weakness, arthritis, poor vision, distant bathroom, etc.

Functional Incontinence

49

Name the type of incontinence. Due to drugs such as sedative, tranquilizers, anticholinergics, sympathetic blocks, potent diuretics.

Incontinence secondary to medications

50

In what type of incontinence is a large bladder often found on physical exam.

Overflow incontinence

51

What type of incontinence has a continuous dripping or dribbling incontinence.

Overflow incontinence (obstruction of bladder outlet)

52

What type of incontinence has momentary leakage of small amounts of urine with coughing, laughing, sneezing.

Stress incontinence

53

What are the three most common ventral hernias?

Umbilical, incisional, epigastric

54

What is an hernia that protrudes through an operative scar.

Incisional hernia

55

What type hernia is a small midline protrusion through a defect in the linea alba that occurs b/w the xiphoid process and the umbilicus.

Epigastric hernia

56

What is it called when the two rectus abdominis muscles separate and abdominal content form a midline ridge when the patient raises their head and shoulders. Often seen in repeated pregnancies, obesity, and chronic lung disease.

Diastasis Recti

57

What is a common, benign, fatty tumor that usually occur in the SQ tissue in the abdominal wall. Tumor typically slips out from under your finger when you press on it.

Lipoma

58

What is the most common cause of a protuberant abdomen?

Fat

59

What is an apron of fatty tissue that may extend below the inguinal ligaments?

Pannus

60

A large, solid tumor is usually ______ to percussion. Air-filled bowel is displaced to the periphery.

Dull

61

Gas causes a _______ percussion note.

Tympanitic

62

Distention becomes more marked in what type of bowel obstruction?

Colonic

63

What is the most common cause of a pelvic "mass" ?

Pregnancy

64

What part of the abdomen does asitic fluid go to?

The lowest point, producing bulging flanks that are dull to percussion.

65

In diarrhea of early intestinal obstruction, bowel sounds are ___________.

Increased

66

Bowel sounds are _____________ then _________ in adynamic ileus and peritonitis.

Decreased then absent

67

What do high-pitched tinkling sounds in teh bowel suggest?

intestinal fluid and air under tension in a dilated bowel.

68

What do rushes of high pitched sounds coinciding with an abdominal cramp indicate?

Intestinal obstruction

69

What does a hepatic bruit suggest?

Carcinoma of the liver or alcoholic hepatitis

70

What does an arterial bruits with both systolic and diastolic components suggest?

Partial occlusion of the aorta or large arteries

71

What is a soft humming noise with both systolic and diastolic components. It indicates increased collateral circulation b/w portal and systemic venous systems, as in hepatic cirrhosis.

Venous hum

72

What is a grating sound with respiratory variation that indicates inflammation of peritoneal surface of an organ.

Friction rub

73

What should you suspect when a systolic bruit accompanies a hepatic friction rub?

Carcinoma of the liver

74

If a person has abdominal wall tenderness, when they raise their head and shoulder while lying down, will the tenderness increase or decrease? What is the tenderness was from a deeper lesion?

Abdominal wall- A persists
Deep lesion B- Decrease

75

What is pain that is frequently bilateral and is the result of inflammation of the fallopian tubes. Usually maximal just above the inguinal ligaments. Rebound tenderness and rigidity are present.

Acute Salpingitis

76

Which is more severe- tenderness associated with peritoneal inflammation or visceral tenderness.

Tenderness associated with peritoneal inflammation

77

What type or peritonitis causes exquisite tenderness throughout the abdomen?

Generalized peritonitis

78

With actue cholecysitis- signs are maximal in which quadrant?

RUQ

79

What sign can tell you if an individual have acute cholecystitis?

Murphy's sign

80

Where is pain with acute pancreatitis usually located?

Epigastric tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal wall may be soft

81

Pain in the LLQ that often resembles a left-sided appendicitis is typically what?

Acute diverticulitis

82

What can a downward displacement of a liver caused by a low diaphragm be caused by?

COPD

83

In what type individuals does the liver tend to be elongated, making the right lobe easily palpable (Riedel's lobe)

Lanky build

84

What disorder can produce an enlarged liver with a firm, nontender edge?

Cirrhosis (also caused by hemochromatosis, amyloidosis, lymphoma)

85

What does an enlarged liver, with a smooth tender edge suggest?

Inflammation (hepatitis), venous congestion (R-sided heart failure)

86

What does an enlarged liver that is firm and has an irregular edge or surface suggest?

Hepatocellular carcinoma.

87

What drugs cause constipation?

opiates, anticholinergic, antacids containing calcium or aluminum

88

What drugs cause urinary incontinence?

sedatives, tranquilizers, anticholinergics, sympathetic blockers, potent diuretics

89

What two problems are caused by anticholinergic drugs?

urinary incontinence and constipation