Bates Tables- Lungs and Thorax Flashcards Preview

Clinical Assessment 2 > Bates Tables- Lungs and Thorax > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bates Tables- Lungs and Thorax Deck (87):
1

What chest pains are retrosternal?

Angina Pectoris, Myocardial Infarction, Pericarditis, Reflex Esophagitis, Diffuse Esophageal Spasm

2

What are the 3 types of persistent chest pain?

Pericarditis, Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm, Pleuritic Pain

3

What is pericarditis?

Irritation of parietal pleura adjacent to the pericardium

4

What two chest pains are described as sharp and knife-like?

Pericarditis, Pleuritic Pain

5

Where is pain felt in Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm?

Anterior chest, radiating to the neck, back, or abdomen

6

Define tracheobronchitis

Inflammation of trachea and large bronchi

7

Where is tracheobronchitis pain?

Upper sternal or on either side of the sternum

8

What 2 types of chest pain are described as stabbing, sticking, or dull, aching?

Chest Wall Pain (Costochondritis) and Anxiety

9

What is a diffuse esophageal spasm?

Motor dysfunction of the esophageal muscle

10

What two chest pains feel like burning?

Tracheobronchitis and Reflex Esophagitis

11

What chest pain is usually 1-3 minutes but up to 10 min?

Angina Pectoris

12

The factors that aggravate this kind of chest pain are deep inspiration, coughing, movements of the trunk

pleuritic pain

13

What are factors that aggravate diffuse esophageal spasms?

swallowing of food or cold liquid; emotional stress

14

Chest wall Pain (costochrondritis) is aggravated by....

movement of chest, trunk, arms

15

Coughing aggravates this type of chest pain.

Tracheobronchitis

Also associated with Pericarditis, Pleuritic pain

16

Breathing, changing position, coughing, lying down, sometimes swallowing aggravate what type of chest pain?

pericarditis

17

What type of chest pain will nitroglycerin and rest alleviate?

Angina Pectoris

18

What is reflux esophagitis?

inflammation of the esophageal mucosa by reflux of gastric acid

19

What alleviates tracheobronchitis?

lying on the involved side

20

What chest pain will be alleviated by sitting forward?

pericarditis

21

Reflex esophagitis can be relieved by...

antacids, sometimes belching

22

What two chest pains have symptoms of dyspnea, nausea, and sweating?

Angina Pectoris and Myocardial infarction

23

Hypertension can aggravate this type of chest pain

Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm

24

What are associated conditions of pericarditis?

seen in autoimmune disorders, post-myocardial infarction, viral infection, chest irradiation

25

What chest pain has cough as a symptom, and is also aggravated by coughing?

tracheobronchitis

26

What are symptoms of anxiety?

breathlessness, palpitations, weakness, anxiety

27

What chest pain has symptoms of regurgitation and dysphagia?

reflex esophagitis

28

What is the symptom of diffuse esophageal spasm?

dysphagia

29

What are symptoms of anxiety with hyperventilation?

sighing, lightheadedness, numbness or tingling of the hands and feet, palpitations, chest pain

30

What is the setting of Left-sided heart failure?

history of heart disease or its predisposing factors

31

What is the timing of chronic bronchitis?

chronic productive cough followed by slowly progressive dyspnea

32

What aggravates COPD?

exertion

33

What is a spontaneous pneumothorax?

leakage of air into pleural space through blebs on visceral pleura, with resulting partial or complete collapse of the lung

34

What two dyspnea conditions have a sudden onset of dyspnea?

spontaneous pneumothorax and acute pulmonary embolism

35

What is inflammation of lung parenchyma from the respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli?

pneumonia

36

What aggravates asthma?

allergens, irritants, respiratory infections, exercise, and emotion

37

Symptoms of this type of dyspnea are cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and sometimes wheezing

Left-sided heart failure

38

What is the setting of an acute pulmonary embolism?

postpartum or postoperative periods, prolonged bed rest, heart failure, chronic lung disease, fractures of hip/leg, deep vein thrombosis

39

What type of dyspnea has symptoms of a cough with scant mucoid sputum?

COPD

40

What are the symptoms of pneumonia?

pleuritic pain, cough, sputum, fever

41

What two acute inflammations have a dry cough that may become productive?

laryngitis, tracheobronchitis

42

What type of cough is mycoplasma and viral pneumonias?

dry hacking cough that often becomes productive with mucoid sputum

43

What acute inflammation has sputum that is mucoid or purulent and can be blood-streaked, pinkish, or rusty?

bacterial pneumonias

44

What four inflammations have a chronic cough?

postnasal drip, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, gastroesophageal reflux

45

What coughs can cause blood-streaked or bloody sputum?

chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, cancer of the lung

46

What has purulent sputum that is copious and foul-smelling?

bronchiectasis

47

What has a chronic cough especially at night or early in the morning?

gastroesophageal reflux

48

What two inflammations produce foul-smelling sputum?

bronchiectasis, lung abscess

49

What specific bacterial pneumonia causes sticky, red, and jellylike sputum?

Klebsiella

50

Left ventricular failure or mitral stenosis produce what type of sputum?

pink frothy sputum once disorder has progressed

51

Name the disorder. It has a dry to productive cough with sputum that may be dark, bright red, or mixed with blood

Pulmonary emboli

52

What inflammation is associated with recurrent bronchopulmonary infections?

bronchiectasis

53

What are the symptoms and setting of a lung abscess?

a febrile illness; often poor dental hygiene and a prior episode of impaired consciousness

54

What inflammation has wheezing (espcially at night), early morning hoarseness, repeated attempts to clear throat?

gastroesophageal reflux

55

Identify the symptoms of mycoplasma and viral pneumonias

acute febrile illness with malaise, headache, and possibly dyspnea

56

identify the symptoms of bacterial pneumonias (including Klebsiella)

-an acute illness with chills, high fever, dyspnea, and chest pain (often preceded by acute upper respiratory infection)
-Klebsiella associated with older alcoholic men

57

What are later symptoms of pulmonary TB?

anorexia, weight loss, fatigue, fever, night sweats

58

What two conditions are associated with wheezing?

asthma and gastroesophageal reflux

59

What disorders are associated with smoking?

chronic bronchitis and lung cancer

60

Name the symptoms and setting of pulmonary emboli

dyspnea, anxiety, chest pain, fever; factors that predispose to deep venous thrombosis

61

What deformity of the thorax may cause murmurs by compressing the heart and great vessels?

funnel chest

62

What deformity of thorax if normal in infancy and occurs in aging and COPD?

barrel chest

63

What is thoracic kyphoscoliosis?

abnormal spinal curvatures and vertebral rotation that deforms the chest making it hard to interpret lung findings

64

Multiple rib fractures resulting in paradoxical movements of the thorax are a result of what thorax deformity?

traumatic flail chest

65

Describe the movement of the thorax with a traumatic flail chest

on inspiration the injured area caves inward and on expiration it moves outward

66

When doing an egophony test on an airless lung what would you hear?

spoken "ee" heard as "ay"

67

What is the normal lung sound for the whispered pectoriloquy test?

whispered words faint and indistinct

68

What state of the lung (normal or airless) would cause spoken words to be louder with the bronchophony test?

airless lung

69

When do you notice an increased tactile fremitus?

in airless lung

70

What are two explanations for crackles?

1. when small airways pop open during inspiration after being deflated during expiration
2. result from air bubbles flowing through secretions or lightly closed airways during respiration

71

What are causes of early inspiratory crackles?

chronic bronchitis and asthma

72

What is the lung sound that appears and ends soon after inspiration and is often coarse sounding?

early inspiratory crackles

73

What sound is associated with bronchiecstasis?

midinspiratory and expiratory crackles

74

Name the lung sound: being in 1st half of inspiration but continue into late inspiration; usually fine, profuse, and persist breath to breath, 1st appear at base of lungs

late inspiratory crackles

75

What are causes of wheezes?

asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD, heart failure

76

What is stridor?

a wheeze entirely or predominantly inspiratory that indicates a partial obstruction of the larynx or trachea

77

The sound when air flow rapidly through bronchi that are narrowed nearly to the point of closure

wheeze

78

The lung sound is that low pitched with a snoring quality is...

rhonchi

79

A pleural rub sounds like...

creaking noises during expiration and is usually heard during both phases of respiration

80

What causes pleural rubs?

inflamed & roughened pleural surfaces grating against each other

81

What sound does a pleural rub resemble?

crackles

82

What are Mediastinal Crunch? Also called Hamman's sign

series of precordial crackles synchronous with the heart beat but not respiration

83

What position is Mediastinal crunch (Hamman's sign) best heard in?

left lateral position

84

Define consolidation

alveoli fill with fluid or blood cells as in pneumonia, pulmonary edema, or pulmonary hemorrhage

85

What chest disorders sound dull with percussion?

consolidation, atelectasis, pleural effusion

86

What chest disorders sound resonant with percussion?

normal, chronic bronchitis, early left sided heart failure

87

What chest disorders sound hyperresonant with percussion?

Pneumothorax, COPD, asthma