Bates' Tables Cardiac (through 9-5) Flashcards Preview

Clinical Assessment 2 > Bates' Tables Cardiac (through 9-5) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bates' Tables Cardiac (through 9-5) Deck (48):
1

What are the 4 types of fast regular patterns on the EKG?

Sinus tachycardia
Supraventricular tachycardia
Atrial flutter with a regular ventricular response
Ventricular tachycardia

2

What are the 3 types of patterns with a regular and normal rate and rhythm on EKG?

Normal sinus rhythm
Second-degree AV block
Atrial flutter with a regular ventricular response

3

What are the 3 types of patterns with a regular and slow rate and rhythm on EKG?

Sinus bradycardia
Second-degree AV block
Complete heart block

4

What is the rate (i.e. #) of a fast beat?

>100

5

What is the rate (i.e. #) of a normal beat?

60-100

6

What is the rate (i.e. #) of a slow beat?

<60

7

What are the three types of irregular rhythm?

Irregularly irregular
regularly irregular
sporadic

8

What is the rhythm with premature or extra beats at random intervals, but normal underlying rhythm?

sporadic

9

What are regularly irregular rhythms?

regular pattern of cadences

10

What are irregularly irregular rhythms?

no discernible regularity

11

Identify the ECG pattern based on rate: 110-250

Ventricular tachycardia

12

Identify the ECG pattern based on rate: 100-175

Atrial flutter with a regular ventricular response

13

Identify the ECG pattern based on rate: 100-180

Sinus tachycardia

14

Identify the ECG pattern based on rate: 150-250

Supraventricular tachycardia

15

Identify the ECG pattern based on rate: 30-60

Second degree AV block

16

What has a EKG rate below 40?

Complete heart block

17

In the healthy heart, the left ventricular impulse is usually...

the point of maximal impulse (PMI)

18

What are the classic descriptors of left ventricular PMI? (Location, diameter, amplitude, duration)

Location= midclavicular, intercostal space 4 & 5
Diameter= discrete; ≤ 2cm
Amplitude: brisk and tapping
Duration: ≤2/3 (two thirds) of systole

19

When can right ventricular impulse be felt?

at infancy, but not palpable beyond that

20

When is S1 accentuated?

tachycardia, rhythms with a short PR interval, high cardiac output states and mitral stenosis

21

When is S1 diminished?

first-degree heart block, mitral valve calcification, mitral regurgitation, left ventricular contractility reduced (i.e. HF, CHD)

22

When does SI vary in intensity?

complete heart block (atria/ventricles beating independently), irregular rhythm

23

When does SI split in abnormal conditions?

right bundle branch block and premature ventricular contractions

24

Where can you hear physiologic splitting of S2?

2nd or 3rd left interspace

25

Is normal S2 splitting heard at inspiration or expiration?

Inspiration (absent during expiration)

26

Is wide S2 splitting heard at inspiration or expiration?

Heard during both, but the split is wider during inspiration

27

What are common causes of wide splitting of S2?

delayed closure of pulmonic valve (as in pulmonic stenosis or right bundle branch block) or early closure of aortic valve (as in mitral regurgitation)

28

What is a common cause of split S1 and wide splitting of S2?

right bundle branch block

29

What is wide splitting that does not vary with respiration called?

fixed splitting (occurs with ASD and right ventricular failure)

30

What variation in S2 has the pulmonic valve closing before the aortic valve closes during expiration?

paradoxical or reversed splitting

31

In paradoxical or reversed splitting, what happens with S2 sound on inspiration?

No splitting of A2 or P2 --> S2 is one sound only because delay of P2 makes the normal split disappear

32

What S2 sound is normally caused by left bundle branch block?

paradoxical or reversed splitting

33

Where can you hear increased intensity of A2?

right 2nd intercostal

34

What sound would calcific aortic stenosis cause?

decreased or absent A2 in the right 2nd intercostal

35

When you hear this sound you should suspect pulmonary HTN, dilated pulmonary artery, or ASD

when P2 is equal to or louder than A2

36

When does decreased or absent P2 occur?

increased anteroposterior diameter of the chest associated with aging or pulmonic stenosis

37

What is early systolic ejection sounds associated with?

cardiovascular disease

38

When do early systolic ejection sounds occur?

coincide with opening of aortic and pulmonic valves

39

What does a mitral valve prolapse usually cause?

systolic clicks

40

When do systolic clicks occur?

mid or late systolic

41

Is it abnormal or normal to detect S3 in children and people under 40 and 3rd trimester of pregnancy?

normal

42

Decreased myocardial contractility, heart failure, volume overloading of the ventricle cause this sound

S3

43

When is S4 normal?

older people and trained athletes

44

HTN heart disease, myocardial ischemia, aortic stenosis, and cardiomyopathy produce this heart sound

S4

45

What is it called when S3 and S4 merge into one loud extra heart sound?

summation gallop

46

Continuous sound without a silent interval
Loudest in diastole
Hear above medial 1/3 of clavicle (esp R)
Humming, roaring
Low pitch

Venous Hum

47

May have 3 components
Heard best in 3rd interspace to L of sternum
High pitch
Scratchy, scraping sound

Pericardial friction rub

48

Continuous murmur heard in both systole and diastole, silent interval in late diastole
Obscure S2
Radiates towards left clavicle
harsh, machinery-like
medium pitch

Patent Ductus Arteriosus