Abdominal Cavity MD4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdominal Cavity MD4 Deck (25):
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Lesser Omentum

  • double layer of peritoneum extending from liver to lesser curvature of stomach and duodenum
  • anterior wall of lesser sac
  • left and right gastric vessels travel b/w its two layers
  • Hepatogastric & Hepatoduodenal lig
  • right margin contains portal triad (bile duct, proper hepatic aa, portal vv.)

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Greater Omentum

  • double sheet folded in on itself (four layers) of peritoneum-> apron down from greater curvature to cover transverse colon and other abdominal viscera
  • adheres to/covers inflamed viscera, preventing spread of peritonitis
  • transmits left and right gastroepiploic vessels b/w layers
  • contains: gastrophrenic, gastrosplenic, gastrocolic, splenorenal lig.

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Epiploic/Omental Foramen (Foramen of Winslow)

  • opening b/w lesser and greater sac
  • bordered by hepatoduodenal lig./portal triad

Inferior recess

  • lower recess of lesser sac, b/w anterior and posterior two layers of greater omentum

Superior recess

  • of lesser sac

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Peritoneal Ligaments

  • Hepatorenal lig. (fold of peritoneum from lower posterior liver to anterior right kidney), part of the right margin of epiploic foramen
  • Gastrophrenic, Gastrosplenic, Gastrocolic, Splenorenal (greater omentum)
  • hepatoduodenal, gastrohepatic (lesser omentum)

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Paracolic Gutters

-spaces b/w colon and abdominal wall, collections of fluids can travel along to end up in places remote from origin

-Right Paracolic gutter (lateral to ascending colon), left (lateral to descending colon), right bigger than left

Hepatorenal recess (Morrison's pouch)

  • peritoneal pockett that is the most gravity dependent (fluid collection) in supine position
  • communicates w/ lesser sac via epiploic foramen & pelvic cavity via right paracolic gutter

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Bare Area of Liver

  • region not covered by peritoneum
  • represents possible route of transmission of infxn from abdominal cavity to thoracic

Coronary Lig.

  • reflections of peritoneum that attach liver to inferior surface of diaphragm

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Right Triangular Lig.

-formed by joining of upper and lower aspects of coronary lig.

-connects right border of bare area of liver to diaphragm

Left Triangular Lig.

-fold of peritoneum that connects upper left lobe of liver to diaphragm

-joins with falciform lig. anteriorly

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Falciform Lig.

  • attaches liver to anterior abdominal wall
  • can become canalised in portal HTN
  • separates liver into R & L lobes

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Liver

-largest gland in body

-GI-absorbed nutrients travel to liver first thru portal venous system

-contains R & L lobes, caudate lobe, quadrate lobe

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Inferior Vena Cava

-b/w caudate lobe and right lobe

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Ligamentum venosum

-remnant of ductus venosus of fetus

-b/w caudate lobe & lateral aspect of left lobe

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Ligamentum teres (Round lig.)

-b/w left lobe and quadrate lobe

-remnant of umbilical vein (in fetus, supplied ductus venosus)

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Hepatic Duct

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Portal Vein

-part of portal triad

-takes blood from GI tract and spleen to liver

-part of blood supply to liver (75%)

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Hepatic Artery (Proper)

-from common hepatic artery

-part of portal triad

-can give rise to right gastric and gastroduodenal aa.

 

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Gallbladder

  • cholesterol stones (80%)
  • pigment stones

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R & L hepatic ducts->

common hepatic duct + cystic duct (GB)

-> common bile duct + main pancreatic duct

-> duodenum (ampulla of vater)

 

  • Triangle of Calot: common hepatic duct, cystic duct, visceral surface of liver

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Stomach, Pylorus, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Ascending & Transverse & Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon, Rectum, R colic flexure (hepatic flexure), L colic flexure (splenic flexure)

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Mesoappendix- mesentery attaching ileum to appendix

Appendix- vestigial? no real function

Cecum- pouch, first part of bowel

 

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Esophagus

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Spleen

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Major duodenal papilla: opening of common bile duct and main pancreatic duct into 2nd part of duodenum

Minor duodenal papilla: opening of accessory pancreatic duct (in some people) into 2nd part of duodenum

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uncinate process of pancreas- hooked part @ head of pancreas that wraps around SMV, sometimes SMA

-tail of pancreas touches spleen

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Arcades

-anastomoses of jejunal & ileal arteries (branches of SMA)

Vasa Recta

-loops of arteries coming off of arcades

- Jejunum- long and few, fewer arcades (greater vascularity)

-Ileum- short and many vasa recta

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ileocecal junction

-has valve sphincter to prevent backflow

-b12 and bile absorption

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Superior Mesenteric Artery

-branch off abdominal aorta just below celiac trunk, behind neck of pancreas

-supplies lower duodenum and head of pancreas (inferior pancreaticoduodenal), jejunum and ileum (intestinal-> give rise to arcades), ileum, cecum, appendix (ileocolic), right colic (ascending colon), middle colic (transverse colon, 2/3)

Marginal Artery

-anastomoses of left colic (from inferior mesenteric aa) w/ superior mesenteric aa (middle, right, ileocolic aa), supplying the inner border of the colon