Surface Features MD4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Surface Features MD4 Deck (10):

Linea alba:

  • forms from fusion of aponeurosis of abdominal muscles, separates left and right rectus abdominis muscles, fibrous line from xiphoid process down to pubic symphysis
  • becomes pigmented in pregnancy (linea nigra)


Linea Semilunaris:

  • tendinous line on lateral boundary of rectus abdominis, formed by aponeurosis of internal oblique, hernia through it is a spontaneous lateral ventral hernia



  • previous attachment site of umbilical cord
  • umbilical hernias: abdominal contents herniate out through umbilicus (surrounded by peritoneum), d/t open umbilicus, incr abdominal pressure d/t obesity, heavy lifting, long Hx of coughing, multiple pregnancies


Superficial Inguinal Ring:

  • exit of inguinal canal, conducts spermatic cord into scrotum
  • on exam, impulse felt w/ coughing for both direct & indirect hernias


Spermatic Cord:

  • contains structures going to and from testes, suspends testes
  • runs from deep inguinal ring, thru inguinal canal, out superficial inguinal ring, to scrotum and posterior testes
  • contains:
  1. vas deferens (sperm from testes) & its aa.
  2. pampiniform venous plexus
  3. testicular aa.
  4. cremaster aa.
  5. lymphatics
  6. autonomics, genital branch of genitofemoral nn. (cremaster muscle)
  • vasectomy: cut and ligate ends of vas deferens



  • protrusion of organ or tissue thru opening
  • 6 Fs: fat, food, fluid, feces, flatus, fetus (put pressure on abdominal wall)

Indirect Hernia:

  • 75% of abdominal hernias
  • lateral to inferior epigastric vessels, travels thru spermatic cord to scrotum
  • more common on right side in men, assoc w/ persistent processus vaginalis, congenital

Direct Hernia:

  • less common
  • acquired, d/t weakened abdominal wall of inguinal lig.
  • medial to inferior epigastric vessels, lateral to conjoint tendon, in inguinal triangle
  • rarely goes to scrotum

Pantaloon hernia (direct & indirect on same side)

Obturator hernia (through obturator foramen (opening b/w pubic bone and ischium), rare, women, assoc. w/ bowel obstruction

Femoral hernia (through wall of femoral canal, just below inguinal lig.), assoc. w/ bowel obstruction


Umbilical Lig

  • Median Umbilical lig.: remnant of urachus (umbilicus to bladder)
  • Medial Umbilical lig.: obliterated umbilical aa.

-direct hernia is lateral to it

  • Lateral Umbilical lig.: inferior epigastric aa.



Hesselbech's Triangle

  • point of weakness, possible site of direct hernias
  • Borders:

-linea semilunaris (lateral border of rectus abdominis)

-inferior epigastric aa.

inguinal lig.



area of skin supplied by one spinal cord segment (dorsal + ventral rami)


Pubic Tubercle

  • attachment site of inguinal lig.