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Pt Assess II Final > Abdominal Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal Lecture Deck (66)
1

Where does the abdominal cavity extend from?

Just below diaphragm to the symphysis pubis

2

How are the 4 quadrants of the abdomen drawn?

-Vertical line through umbilicus
-Horizontal across umbilicus

3

Define anorexia

Loss of appetite

4

What can early satiety indicate?

Gastric outlet obstruction
Hepatitis
Diabetic gastroparesis

5

What GI-related things can cause unintentional weight loss?

-Malignancy
-Malabsorption
-Liver disease

6

Define dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

7

Define odynophagia

Painful swallowing

8

How can heartburn radiate?

To neck and epigastrum

9

Mechanical causes of dysphagia

-Stricture
-Cancer or mass
-Obstruction (FB)

10

Motor causes of dysphagia

-Neuro disorder
-Spasm
-Scleroderma

11

If a patient points to their throat, they usually have a/an ___ problem

Transfer

12

If a patient points to their chest (and it is suspected GI related), then it is often a/an ____ problem

Esophageal

13

Define transfer dysphagia

-Swallowing is attempted
-Results in aspiration of food into nose/lungs
-Suggests CNS problem

14

Define achalasia

Esophageal musculature does not relax enough

15

Regurgitation of food bolus suggests ____ problem

Mechanical

16

Intermittent solid to liquid mechanical dysphagia suggests:

Stricture

17

Intermittent solid then progressing to liquid mechanical dysphagia and progressively worsening with pain suggests:

Esophageal cancer

18

What are common causes of odynophagia?

-Esophagitis (GERD induced)
-FB
-Pharyngitis (MC)
-Achalasia

19

What is the MC cause of odynophagia?

Pharyngitis

20

Sharp and burning odynophagia suggests:

Mucosal inflammation (reflux esophagitis or infection)

21

Sharp and sticking odynophagia suggests:

Mechanical (fish or chicken bone)

22

Squeezing/cramping odynophagia suggests:

Muscular (esophageal spasm, achalasia)

23

Define regurgitation (GI)

Bringing up gastric contents without nausea or vomiting

24

What can cause fecal-like material to be vomited?

Small bowel blockage or fistula

25

Presence of bright red blood in vomitus indicates:

Esophageal or upper GI bleed

26

Presence of coffee ground material in vomitus indicates:

Partially digested blood (altered by stomach acid)

27

Prolonged vomiting will cause:

Fluid and electrolyte imbalance

28

Aerophagia can cause:

Excessive belching/flatulence

29

Define obstipation

Constipation occurring as a result of intestinal obstruction

30

Large volumes of osmotic (watery) diarrhea can indicate:

Lactose intolerance

31

Soft, watery with blood diarrhea indicates:

IBD (ulcerative colitis)

32

Small, soft, watery w/o blood diarrhea indicates:

Crohn's disease

33

Melena means:

Blood has passed through digestive tract
(black, tarry stools)

34

Jaundice can be accompanied with:

Severe itching

35

Jaundice is caused by:

Hepatic disease or lysis of RBCs

36

Jaundice causes elevated levels of ____ in the blood

Bilirubin

37

How do urine and stool change with jaundice?

-Urine becomes like tea
-Stools become light yellow or gray

38

Stretching of liver capsule can cause ____ pain

Visceral

39

Quality of visceral pain

-Cramping colicky
-Crescendo/decrescendo
-Can be related to intestinal peristalsis
-Usually not well localized by pt

40

Severe visceral pain can be accompanied by:

-NV
-Sweating
-Pallor
-Restlessness (writhing)

41

Function of mesentery

Acts as conduit for BV, nerves, lymphatics usually supported in layers of fat

42

Describe parietal pain

-Inflammation of parietal peritoneum
-Aka somatic pain
-Steady, aching, severe (worse than visceral)
-Well localized
-Aggravated by movement (pts lie still!)

43

How does acute appendicitis pain present?

-Initially, periumbilical visceral pain
-Gradually, parietal pain well localized to RLQ as inflammation spreads

44

Define referred pain

-Pain from original site radiates to distant site
-Often at same spinal level as affected structure
-May be superficial or deep
-Well localized

45

Abdominal pain is a (reliable/unreliable) guide to severity?

Unreliable - depends on patient
-Chronology may be more useful

46

How is abdominal contour described?

-Flat
-Protuberant
-Scaphoid
-Obese

47

Visible peristalsis can be an early sign of:

Obstruction

48

Define diastasis recti

Separation of rectus abdominis muscles in midline creating a ridge when pt lifts head and shoulders off flat surface
-Not pathological

49

Describe ascites

Free fluid collection in abdomen

50

Hyperactive bowel sounds can indicate:

-Diarrhea
-Early obstruction

51

Hypoactive bowel sounds can indicate:

-Paralytic ileus
-Early peritonitis

52

Absent bowel sounds indicate:

-Complete obstruction
-Late peritonitis

53

Gas produces what note of percussion?

Tympanic

54

Liquid produces what note of percussion?

Dull

55

Solid produces what note of percussion?

Even more profound dullness than liquid

56

Areas that contain both gas and fluid will produce what note of percussion?

Lower pitched tympanic

57

Most notable areas of abdomen for percussion?

-Gastric bubble (LUQ, tympanic)
-Colonic splenic flexure (LUQ, low tympanic)
-Liver (RUQ, dullness)

58

What does abdominal muscular rigidity indicate?

Peritoneal irritation

59

How are abdominal masses classified?

-Physiologic (pregnant uterus)
-Neoplastic (tumors)
-Vascular (AAA)
-Inflammatory (diverticulitis)

60

What does rebound tenderness indicate?

Presence of peritoneal inflammation

61

A normal size liver may be palpable up to ___ cm below the ____

3 cm below costal margin (in mid-clavicular line)

62

Describe a normal liver edge

Smooth, soft

63

What is the purpose of the scratch test?

Can help to locate lower liver margin

64

Where does the spleen lie?

Between left 10th rib (LUQ)

65

Purpose of psoas sign

-Tests for appendicitis
-Abdominal pain occurs due to inflamed psoas muscle

66

Describe Rovsing's sign

-Aka indirect tenderness
-Rebound tenderness in LLQ
-Positive in appendicitis