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Flashcards in PV Lecture Deck (32)
1

What are the arterial pulses of the upper extremity?

Brachial
Radial
Ulnar

2

What are the arterial pulses of the lower extremity?

Femoral
Popliteal
Posterior Tibial
Dorsalis pedis

3

Describe the lower extremity venous systems

1. Superficial (great and small saphenous)
2. Deep (femoral and popliteal)

4

What are the main lymph nodes of the upper extremities and where are they located?

-Epitrochlear (3 cm above medial epicondyle)
-Axillary (multiple here)

5

What are the main lymph nodes in the lower extremities and where are they located?

-Horizontal superficial inguinal (proximal anterior thigh just below inguinal ligament)
-Vertical superficial inguinal (upper part of saphenous vein)

6

What could an enlarged epitrochlear node indicate?

HIV

7

What are the symptoms of acute arterial PVD?

5 P's:
1. Pain (sudden)
2. Pulselessness
3. Pallor
4. Paresthesias (numbness)
5. Paralysis (sudden weakness)

8

What are the symptoms of chronic arterial PVD?

-Intermittent claudication
-Rest pain
-Tissue loss (peripheral, cerebral, visceral)

9

What are the types of arterial circulatory compromise in PVD?

-Acute (embolus)
-Chronic (thrombosis)
-Compression (positional)

10

What are the general characteristics that cause arterial PVD?

-Arterial circulatory compromise
-Bleeding (rupture of aneurysm or trauma)
-Spasm (Raynauds)
-Inflammation (arteritis)

11

Symptoms of PVD are always ___ to the site of obstruction

Distal

12

Aorto-iliac PVD results in ___ claudication

Gluteal

13

Femoral-popliteal PVD results in ____ claudication

Leg/calf

14

Axillary embolus results in ischemic changes in the ____

Forearm and hand

15

Brachial embolus results in ischemic changes in the ____

Fingers and hand

16

What are the main arterial causes of PVD?

-Athero
-DM
-Vasospastic disorders (Raynauds)
-Trauma

17

How does venous PVD present?

-Normal pulses
-Brown patches on lower legs
-Dependent edema
-Irregular shaped painless ulcers on lower legs and ankles
-Dependent cyanosis
-Pain relieved with legs elevated
-Normal nails

18

What are the main venous causes of PVD?

-DVT/PE
-Varicosities
-Venous stasis disease

19

How are pulses graded?

0 = absent
1+ = diminished
2+ = normal
3+ = increased
4+ = bounding

20

When can bounding pulses occur?

Hyperthyroid
Fever
Exercise
Anxiety

21

Which pulses of the head do we palpate?

-Temporal
-Carotid

22

How does orthostatic hypotension present?

From lying to sitting then standing
-Decrease in SBP 10+ mmHg
-Increase in HR 10+ bpm

23

What conditions could a pulsus paradoxus indicate?

-Cardiac tamponade
-Pericarditis
-COPD
-Chronic sleep apnea
-Croup

24

What is the purpose of Allen's test?

-For patency of radial and ulnar arteries
-Prior to A-line insertion
-Prior to use of radial artery in CABG or cardiac cath

25

What is Adson's Maneuver?

-Aka Wright's test
-Pain/numbness in arms from compression of subclavian artery
-Indicates thoracic outlet syndrome

26

How does doppler classify blood flow in lower extremities?

Biphasic = normal
Monophasic or absent = abnormal

27

What is ABI?

-Ankle Brachial Index
-Measures SBP in brachial and compares with PT/DP in leg/foot using doppler
-Normal is 1.0 - 1.2

28

What are the classifications of ABI values from normal to PAD?

1.3+ = non compressible (DM and CKD)
1.0 to 1.2 = normal
Less than 0.9 = mild to moderate PAD
Less than 0.4 = severe PAD

29

If the aorta is greater than ___ cm width, it may indicate ____

3+ cm
AAA

30

Which arteries do we auscultate in the abdomen?

Aortic, renal, iliac

31

What is the perforating venous system?

Connects superficial to deep

32

Functions of venous system

-Return O2 poor blood to heart
-Storage (70% of blood volume)
-Thermoregulation
-Regulation of CO