Flashcards in Radiology Module Deck (36)
Describe PA CXR
What does an AP CXR show?
Magnification of the heart and widening of mediastinum
Purpose of lateral decubitus CXR
To assess volume of and mobile vs. loculated pleural effusion
What makes a CXR technically adequate?
FAN-Full inspiration (diaphgram at level of 8-10 posterior rib, 5-6 anterior rib)-Adequate penetration-No rotation
Elimination of lung/soft tissue interface caused by a mass or fluid
-Tubular outline of an airway-Made visible by filling of SURROUNDING alveoli (w/fluid or exudates)
Collapse or incomplete expansion of lung
Earliest CXR finding of congestive heart failure
Cardiomegaly (increased cardiothoracic ratio 50+%)
What are Kerley B lines? What condition are they associated with?
-Horizontal lines less than 2 cm long-Due to interstitial edema-Found in CHF
What is the bat wing sign?
Sign of pulmonary edema
Describe pneumonia on CXR
Space occupying lesion WITHOUT volume loss
How do most PEs present on CXR?
No finding - normal CXR
Possible PE findings on CXR?
-Westermark's sign-Hampton's hump-Increased size of hilum
What is a pneumothorax?
Air inside thoracic cavity but outside of the lung
What is the ACR Appropriateness Criteria?
How to view old and new CXRs?
Define "satisfaction of search"
Seeing one finding and then you stop looking for more
What do you examine for on abdominal x-ray?
Which x-rays/views comprise an acute abdominal pain exam?
Why is an AP CXR included in an acute abdominal pain exam?
It is more sensitive for detecting pneumoperitoneum (free air in peritoneal cavity)
Causes of pneumoperitoneum
-Bowel perforation (90%)-Other causes (don't need surgery)
Double wall sign
What comprises an adequate c-spine x-ray series?
-True lateral view-AP view-Open mouth odontoid view
What is a true lateral view of the c-spine?
How is visualization of the C7-T1 junction enhanced on x-ray?
-Traction on arms (if no injury present)OR-Swimmer's view (one arm over head)
Malalignment of 1 bone on another
Physiologic misalignment that normally occurs in children (usually at C2-C3)
Compression of C1
Through pars interarticularis of C2
Clay shoveler's fracture
Fracture of a spinous process C6-T1
C3-C7 fracture from C2 compression
Which fractures occur MC - metacarpal/phalanges OR carpals?
Metacarpal/phalanges (20x more often)
5th metacarpal fracture
Intra-articular fracture-dislocation of 1st metacarpal base