Chapter 11 - Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Heart Deck (107)
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1

Major categories of heart disease

1. Coronary
2. HTN
3. Rheumatic
4. Bacterial endocarditis
5. Congenital

2

Which type of heart disease is the MC?

Coronary

3

Why is bacterial endocarditis still a problem?

Despite abx, # of cases are increasing d/t IV street drug use

4

Circulation system consists of a ___ pressure delivery system and a ___ pressure return system

High delivery (left)
Low return (right)

5

Most of the anterior cardiac surface is the ____ ventricle

Right

6

The RA forms a narrow border from the ___ to ___ ribs to the ___ of the sternum

3rd-5th Right

7

Where is the apex of the heart located?

5th ICS at midclavicular line

8

What is the apical impulse also known as?

Point of maximum impulse (PMI)

9

4 classic auscultatory areas and where they are

1. Aortic = 2ICS-RSB (right sternal border)
2. Pulmonic = 2ICS-LSB
3. Tricuspid = LLSB
4. Mitral = 5ICS-MCL (midclavicular line)
Also Erb's point (3rd ICS) - best for aortic/pulmonic

10

What are the only sounds that should be heard normally?

Closing of the valves (S1 and S2)

11

What does S1 indicate?

Closing of the AV valves (lub)

12

What does S2 indicate?

Closing of the semilunar valves (dub)

13

When can opening of the valves be heard?

Only when they are damaged

14

Define "opening snap" and when it occurs

Sound of an AV valve opening when it is stenotic
*Diastole

15

Define "ejection click" and when it occurs

Sound of a SL valve opening when it is stenotic
*Systole

16

How do the pulmonic and aortic valves open/close in relation to each other?

Pulmonic opens first, but closes last

17

When does isovolumetric contraction occur?

Between closure of AV valves and opening of the SL valves

18

Ejection is defined as:

Time between opening and closing of SL valves

19

Incisura/Dicrotic notch =

The point at which ejection is completed and the aortic and left ventricular curves separate

20

When does isovolumetric relaxation occur?

Between closure of SL valves and opening of AV valves

21

Define S3

Third heart sound - end of ventricular filling
*Mainly heard in children/young adults

22

What does an S3 in 30+ yos indicate?

Ventricular volume overload (could be from regurg/CHF)

23

Define S4

4th heart sound - atrial contraction/additional ventricular filling
*Normal in children/young adults

24

What does an S4 in 30+ yos indicate?

Noncompliant/stiff ventricle (from pressure overload/CAD)

25

What are gallop sounds?

S3 and S4

26

The ___ heart sound is loudest at the cardiac apex

S1

27

The ___ heart sound is loudest at the base

S2

28

Splitting of the first heart sound may be heard in the ___ area

Tricuspid

29

What is sinus arrhythmia?

Normal finding!
Reflex tachycardia during inspiration that compensates for decreased LV volume

30

Anacrotic pulse and what causes it?

Small, slow rising, delayed pulse with a notch or shoulder on the ascending limb
*Aortic stenosis