Knee Foot Ankle Lecture Flashcards Preview

Pt Assess II Final > Knee Foot Ankle Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Foot Ankle Lecture Deck (41)
1

Inspection of knee:

-Alignment (valgus or varus)
-Curvature (viewed from side)
-Swelling
-Muscle symmetry
-Patella alignment
-Flat feet?
-Gait

2

What is genu valgus?

Tibia is angled away from midline (knock knees)

3

What is genu varus?

Tibia is angled toward midline (bow legged)

4

What is genu recurvatum? Who is affected by this?

-Hyperextension curvature of the knee (viewed from the side)
-MC females and those w/lax ligaments

5

Palpation of the knee:

-Patella and patellar tendon
-Suprapatellar pouch
-Quad (while pt extends knee)

6

What is the apprehension test of the knee?

-Place thumb on medial patella and push laterally
-Watch pt for apprehension
-Sign of patellar instability

7

What can cause knee joint line tenderness?

OA, meniscal tears/cysts, synovitis

8

What is the Lachman's test?

-Test for ACL injury
-Support knee with both hands
-Flex knee to 30 degrees
-Draw tibia anteriorly to check for anterior translation and laxity

9

In an uninjured ACL, which is more critical - degree of laxity or asymmetry?

Asymmetry
(laxity is more important in an injured ACL)

10

What is the anterior draw test?

-Another test for ACL injury
-Not as sensitive as Lachman
-Anchor foot by sitting on it
-Draw tibia anteriorly
-Compare symmetry and laxity like Lachman

11

Anterior draw vs. Lachman

Both tests for ACL injury
Lachman is more sensitive

12

MCL tear grading

Grade 2: 5 to 10 mm laxity
Grade 3 (complete): Over 10 mm laxity

13

What is the least commonly torn knee ligament?

LCL

14

How to test for MCL injury?

Apply valgus stress gently

15

How to test for LCL injury?

Apply varus stress gently

16

What is McMurray's test?

-Assess for torn meniscus in knee
-"Stirring the pot" (rotate leg internally and externally)
-Maintain small valgus stress
-Positive is pain and joint line tenderness

17

What is the Apley grind test?

-Assess for torn meniscus in knee
-Like McMurray's but pt lies prone

18

What is the squeeze test for the knee?

-Extensor dysfunction
-Squeeze quad at attachment to patella and have pt gently tighten quad muscle
-Positive is pain

19

Inspection of foot and ankle:

-Shoes for abnormal wear
-Count toes
-Hallux valgus deformity
-Ingrown toenails

20

Flat feet patients will wear down which side of shoes?

Medial

21

Foot drop patients will wear down which side of shoes?

Toes of shoes will be scuffed

22

What is pes cavus?

Abnormally high arch in the foot

23

What is pes planus?

Flat feet

24

What is Haglund's deformity?

-Aka pump bump
-Over achilles insertion into calcaneus
-Caused by excessive pressure/tight shoes

25

What are the lateral ligaments of the ankle?

-Anterior talofibular
-Calcaneofibular
-Posterior talofibular
(Not as strong as deltoid ligaments)

26

How are the lateral ligaments of the ankle MC injured?

Inversion injuries

27

MC ligament injured in the ankle?

Anterior talofibular

28

Where does Morton's neuroma occur?

Between 3rd and 4th MT heads

29

What is the test used to determine ankle joint instability?

Anterior draw

30

Motions of the ankle?

Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

31

Subtalar motions?

Inversion and eversion of foot

32

Midtarsal motions?

Forefoot abduction and adduction

33

Toe motions?

Flexion and extension

34

How to test plantar flexion and toe extension?

Pt walks on toes

35

How to test dorisflexion of foot?

Pt walks on heels

36

How to test inversion of feet?

Pt walks on lateral sides of feet

37

How to test eversion of feet?

Pt walks on medial sides of feet

38

Dorsiflexor muscles of the foot?

Tibialis anterior
EHL
EDL

39

Plantar flexor muscles of foot?

Peroneus longus/brevis
Gastroc and soleus
FHL
FDL

40

Describe Homan's sign

-Test for DVT
-Forcibly dorsiflex foot
-Positive is pain in calf

41

What is Thompson's test?

-For torn Achilles tendon
-Pt lies prone w/feet dangling
-Examiner squeezes calf muscle
-Toes will point down (normal)
-With torn Achilles, toes will not move