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Flashcards in acid/base Deck (49):
1

lung chemicals

CO2 - acid

2

kidney chemicals

H - acid
HCO3 - base

3

how long does it take kidneys to compensate?

hours to days, but efficiently

4

how long does it take lungs to compensate?

occurs quickly, but less efficiently than kidneys

5

respiratory acidosis
problem organ

lung

6

respiratory acidosis
problem chemical

too much CO2 (acid)

7

respiratory acidosis
hypoventilating or hyperventilating?

hypoventilating

8

respiratory acidosis
compensatory organ

kidneys

9

respiratory acidosis
how will compensating organ work?

kidneys
excrete H
retain HCO3

10

respiratory acidosis
pH high or low?

low

11

respiratory acidosis
cause + how

CO2 retention
- mid-abdominal incision
- narcotics (decreased...
- sleeping pills ...RR)
- pneumothorax (lungs can't...
- collapsed lung ...expand/contract properly)
- pneumonia (improper gas exchange(

12

respiratory acidosis
s/s

headache, confused, sleepy
if not corrected, coma
s/s hypoxia

13

early s/s of hypoxia

restlessness & tachycardia

14

respiratory acidosis
tx

fix the breathing problem!
- treat pneumonia, postural drainage, percussion, deep breathing, suctioning, fluids, elevate HOB, IS, chest tubes

15

respiratory alkalosis
problem organ

lungs

16

respiratory alkalosis
compensatory organ

kidneys

17

respiratory alkalosis
problem chemical

not enough CO2 (acid)

18

respiratory alkalosis
how will compensatory organ work?

kidneys;
retain H
excrete HCO3

19

respiratory alkalosis
gaining or losing CO2?

losing

20

respiratory alkalosis
hyperventilating or hypoventilating?

hyperventilating

21

respiratory alkalosis
cause + how

insufficient CO2 (hyperventilating)
- hysterical
- acute aspirin overdose

22

acute aspirin overdose (results in what acid/base issue and why?)

respiratory alkalosis
- triggers respiratory center in brain resulting in hyperventilation

23

respiratory alkalosis
s/s

cerebral vasoconstriction
- lightheaded
- faint
- peri-oral numbness

numbness/tingling in fingers and toes

24

respiratory alkalosis
tx

DO NOT WAIT UNTIL KIDNEYS KICK IN
- breathe into paper bag
- sedate client to decrease RR
- treat cause
- monitor ABG

25

respiratory acidosis OR alkalosis, the problem is...

CO2 (acid)

26

restlessness = think

hypoxia first!`

27

metabolic acidosis
problem organ

kidneys

28

metabolic acidosis
compensatory organ

lungs

29

metabolic acidosis
how compensatory organ works

respiratory rate will increase to blow off CO2 (acid)

30

metabolic acidosis
problem chemicals

retaining H+
does not have enough bicarb

31

metabolic acidosis
pH low or high?

low

32

metabolic acidosis
causes + how x4

DKA
starvation
- cells starving for glucose = breakdown of protein, fat = ketones = acids

renal failure
severe diarrhea (base in lower GI tract lost)

33

metabolic acidosis
s/s

depends on the cause
- hyperkalemia
- increased respiratory rate

34

metabolic acidosis
s/s hyperkalemia

muscle twitching, muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis, arrhythmias

35

metabolic acidosis
tx

treat the cause (insulin, eat, anti-diarrhea)

36

metabolic acidosis
helpful drug + action

IV push Na bicarb - won't fix problem, buys time to correct real problem

37

metabolic alkalosis
problem organ

kidneys

38

metabolic alkalosis
compensatory organ

lungs

39

metabolic alkalosis
compensatory organ works how

decrease RR to retain CO2

40

metabolic alkalosis
problem chemicals

retaining HCO3
excreting H

41

metabolic alkalosis
pH high or low?

high

42

metabolic alkalosis
causes

loss of upper GI contents (ng tube, vomit)
too many antacids
too much IV bicarb

43

metabolic alkalosis
s/s

depends on cause!
- alterations in LOC
- decreased serum K
- monitor for muscle cramps and life threatening arrhythmia

44

metabolic alkalosis
tx

fix the problem
replace K+

45

metabolic alkalosis + K

hypokalemia

46

metabolic acidosis + K

hyperkalemia

47

ABG: compensated

pH normal
pCO2 wack
pHCO3 wack

48

ABG: uncompensated

pH wack
pCO2 normal
pHCO3 normal

49

ABG: partially compensated

pH wack
pCO2 wack
pHCO3 wack