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Flashcards in oncology Deck (58):
1

blom-singer device

used for laryngectomy (vocal cords, epiglottis, thyroid cartilage removed) which is a laryngeal cancer treatment

connection between trachea and esophagus - stick plastic/finger in fistula and air diverted from trachea to esophagus and out of mouth

- breathe out of neck

2

most frequent mets for colorectal cancer

liver

3

definitive test for colorectal cancer

colonoscopy

4

fecal occult blood testing should begin when?

50

colorectal cancer

5

flexible sigmoidoscopy when?

every 5 years after age 50

colorectal cancer

6

colonoscopy when?

every 10 years after age 50

colorectal cancer

7

colectomy

part of colon removed

colorectal cancer

8

abdominoperineal resection

removal of colon, anus, rectum

colorectal cancer

9

greatest risk factor for bladder cancer

smoking - nicotine irritates lining

10

ileal conduit

piece of ileum turned into a bladder, ureters placed on one end, other end is brought to abdominal surface as stoma

11

major symptom of bladder cancer

painless intermittent gross/microscopic hematuria

12

benign prostatic hyperplasia s/s

hesitancy, frequency, frequent infection (bladder not completely emptied), nocturia, urgency, dribbling

- many men are asymptomatic
- men with prostate cancer present this way

13

most common sign of prostate cancer

painless hematuria

14

diagnostic lab for prostate cancer & when

PSA, less than 4 ng/mL

with 2+ 1st degree relatives who had prostate cancer, start testing at age 45

15

radical prostatectomy

take out prostate = removal of cancer (localized prostate cancer)

may have ED due to pudendal nerve damage, incontinence

16

most popular prostatic surgery in the S

TURP - transurethral resection of the prostate

17

TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate - for BPH (helps urine flow) and prostate cancer (not a cure)
- symptomatic relief of sx
- allows urine to flow out

no incision, bleeding normal after surgery, continuous bladder irrigation to maintain patency and flush out clots

18

bacterium associated with stomach cancer

H Pylori

19

higher instance of stomach cancer in people with x2

pernicious anemia
achlorhydria

20

female: self-breast exam over age 20 frequency

monthly

21

women
clinical breast exam
- over age 40 frequency
- age 20-39 frequency

yearly
every 3 years

22

pelvic exam and pap smears: frequency

annually
every 3 years with no problem

23

women
mammogram frequency and at what age?

yearly starting at age 40

24

men and women!
colonoscopy: when and frequency

every 10 years starting at age 50

25

men: self-breast exam frequency

monthly

26

testicular exams when?

monthly - tumors grow rapidly

27

digital rectal exam and PSA: age and frequency

for men over age 50, yearly

28

brachytherapy

internal radiation - radioactive source is inside the client
sealed vs unsealed

29

unsealed brachytherapy

client and body fluid emit radiation for 24-48 hours
given IV or PO

30

sealed brachytherapy

client emits radiation, body fluids not radioactive
implanted close to/in tumor - does emit radiation to general environment

31

teleptherapy

external radiation/beam therapy

32

don't forget that clients with brachytherapy are...

IMMUNOSUPPRESSED!

33

if brachytherapy implant becomes dislodged do what?

- put on gloves
- use forceps/tongs to pick up
- place in lead-lined container
- call environmental services

34

chemotherapy basics

works on cell cycle
usually scheduled q3-4 weeks
most drugs given IV via port, absorb through skin and mucus membranes

35

vesicant chemo

type that will cause tissue necrosis upon extravasation

36

if chemo extravasation think

VASOCONSTRICTION: cold - prevent spread

37

for chemo patients, slight increase in temp may mean

SEPSIS! can just be low grade!

38

most important lab value for chemo patients

absolute neutrophil count

39

risk factors for cervical cancer

#1: HPV
multiple sexual partner, repeated STD, smoking/exposure to second hand smoke, dietary factors, prolonged hormonal therapy, family history, immunosuppression, sex and/or first pregnancy at young age, multiple pregnancies

40

test to diagnose cervical cancer

pap smear

41

conization

remove part of cervix

cervical cancer

42

uterine cancer risk factors

50+
estrogen therapy without progesterone
family hx
late menopause
no pregnancy (infertility increases risk)

43

major symptom of uterine cancer

post-menopausalbleeding

44

uterine cancer aka

endometrial cancer

45

CA-125 blood test

rules out ovarian involvement with uterine cancer

46

most definitive diagnostic test for uterine cancer

D&C and endometrial biopsy

47

total abdominal hysterectomy

uterus and cervix removed

48

oophorectomy

ovaries removed

49

salpingectomy

fallopian tubes removed

50

why do you avoid high fowler's position in post-hysterectomy client?

blood goes to pelvis

51

breast cancer risk increases 3 fold if

1st degree relative had pre-menopausal breast cancer

52

breast cancer risk factors

high dose radiation to thorax before age 20, period before age 12, menopause after age 50, no pregnancy, first birth greater than 30 years old

53

48% of breast tumors occur here

Tail of Spence (upper outer quadrant by axilla)

54

breast tumors depend on what hormone?

estrogen

55

leading cause of cancer death worldwide

lung

56

lobectomy

take out part of lung
- chest tubes, surgical side up

57

pneumonectomy

whole lung taken out
- position on affected side (surgical side down, good lung up)
- no chest tubes (no pleural space)
- avoid severe lateral positioning to avoid mediastinal shift

58

surgical treatment for laryngeal cancer

total laryngectomy (removal of vocal cords, epiglottis, thyroid, cartilage) + permanent tracheostomy (stoma in neck not oropharynx)