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Flashcards in Acid-Base Balance Deck (41):
1

Enumerate organ systems
involved in the acid-base balance;

Respiratory & excretory test

2

Strong acids: pKa values

3.0

3

Strong bases: pKa values > __

9.0

4

Identify: most important buffer system
when it comes to acid-base balance

Bicarbonate buffer system

5

Which is true?
A. For acids, raising the pH above the pKa will cause the acid to dissociate and yield an H+
B. For bases, lowering the pH below the pKa will cause the base to release OH−
C. BOTA
D. NOTA

C

6

Effectiveness of buffer depends on the ff, except:
A.pKa of the buffering system
B.pOH of the substance
C.pH of the environment in which it is placed
D.NOTA

B

7

Which are extracellular buffers?
A. bicarbonate
B. proteins
C. ammonia
D. phosphate

A and C

8

Which are intracellular buffers?
A. bicarbonate
B. proteins
C. ammonia
D. phosphate

B and D

9

has more immediate effect in terms of buffering
A.Respiratory System
B.Renal System
C.NOTA

A

10

normal extracellular H+ value: identiify

36 to 44 nmol/L

11

Which is not a consequence of abnormal extracellular H+ value?
A.altered consciousness
B.neuromuscular irritability
C.tetany
D.abdominal pain

D

12

true about bicarbonate buffer system
A.H2CO3 dissociates into CO2 and H2O, allowing CO2 to be eliminated by the lungs and H+ as water
B.changes in CO2 modify the functional rate of kidneys
C.HCO3- concentration can be altered by the lungs

A

B - modify ventilation rate dapat
C - by kidneys dapat

13

Bicarbonate buffer system immediately counters the effects of:
A. ketone bodies
B. lactic acid
C. non-volatile acids
D. AOTA

D

14

What is the role of phosphate buffer system?

plays a role in plasma and red blood cells and is involved in the exchange of sodium ion in the urine H+ filtrate

15

main component of plasma protein

the imidazole groups of histidine

16

Differentiate the two types of acidosis/alkalosis.

primary respiratory - disorder caused by ventilatory dysfunction
non-respiratory - caused by bicarbonate imbalance. (renal, metab func)

17

Which is/are false?
A. If the imbalance is of nonrespiratory origin, the body compensates by altering ventilation
B. For disturbances of the respiratory component, the kidneys compensate by selectively excreting or reabsorbing anions and cations
C. Lungs - don't compensate immediately, but response is often complete
D. Kidneys - faster to respond, but short term and incomplete

C and D
baliktad

18

fully compensated - normal range ang pH
identify ratio for this

20 carbonic acid: 1 bicarbonate

19

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS is a decrease in bicarbonate. The ff can make this happen, except:
A.the direct administration of an acid-producing substance, such as ammonium chloride and calcium chloride
B.by lack of formation of organic acids as seen with diabetic ketoacidosis and starvation
C.reduced excretion of acids, as in renal tubular acidosis
D.excessive loss of bicarbonate from diarrhea or drainage from a biliary, pancreatic, or intestinal fistula

B
excessive dapat

20

Which is false?
A. symptoms of metabolic acidosis are hard to diagnose
B. If alkalosis comes with vomiting, H2SO4 is excreted.

T

21

Identify
deep, rapid breathing; classically associated with diabetic ketoacidosis

Kussmaul respirations

22

Main diagnostic procedure for metabolic acidosis

Arterial blood gas sampling

23

Which may not lead to respiratory acidosis?
A.chronic hypercarbia in COPD patients
B.less lung surface for gas exchange
C.bronchopneumonia
D.alcohol
E.NOTA

E

Alcohol depresses respi func --> CO2 accum

24

Differentiate acute respi acidosis fr chronic:

chronic does not have acidemia
acute does not have elevated serum bicarbonate

25

Which factor may not cause metabolic alkalosis (gain in bicarbonate)?
A.sodium citrate
B.diuretics
C.vomiting
D.alcohol

D
Alcohol --> respi acidosis

26

Which factor may not cause respi alkalosis (loss in CO2)?
A.hypoxemia
B.diuretics
C.pulmonary emboli
D.pulmonary fibrosis

B - for metabolic alkalosis

27

___ receives electron pairs from the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 leading to the release of the energy used to synthesize ATP from the phosphorylation of ADP

Molecular oxygen

28

Each adult hemoglobin molecule combine reversibly with
up to __ molecules of oxygen

4

29

The actual amount of oxygen loaded onto hemoglobin depends on all except
A.Concentration and types of hemoglobin
B.pH
C.Temperature of the blood
D.2,3-monophosphoglycerate

D

Diphosphoglycerate dapat

30

Identify hemoglobin type
hemoglobin not bound to oxygen but capable of forming
a bond when oxygen is available

Deoxyhemoglobin

31

Identify type of hemoglobin
hemoglobin bound to CO
(bond between CO and Hb is reversible but is 200 times
as strong as the bond between O2
and Hb)

Carboxyhemoglobin

32

Identify type of hemoglobin
hemoglobin unable to bind
oxygen because iron is in an oxidized rather than reduced state; Fe3
+ can be reduced by methemoglobin
reductase (red blood cells)

Methemoglobin

33

2,3-diphosphoglycerate - An organophosphate created in __ during
glycolysis
A. Leukocytes
B. Erythrocytes
C. Thrombocytes
D. AOTA

B

34

Does not cause increase in 2,3-DPG
A.hypoxaemia
B.anaemia
C.septic shock
D.congestive heart failure

C

35

In oximeter, pO2 measurement is amperometric – what does this mean?

that the amount of
current flow is an indication of the oxygen present

36

pCO2 and pH measurements are potentiometric - what does this mean

a
change in voltage indicates the activity of each analyte

37

The actual percent __(O2
d
etermined spectrophotometrically using a CO-oximeter
designed to directly measure the various hemoglobin
species.

A.methemoglobin
B.oxyhemoglobin
C.myoglobin
D.NOTA

b

38

If the specimen is exposed to air, pH (increases, decreases)

Increases

39

If the specimen is RT > 30 min, pH (increases, decreases)

Decreases

40

If the specimen is RT > 30 min, pCO2 (increases, decreases)

Increases

41

If the specimen is exposed to air, pO2(increases, decreases)

Increases