Flashcards in Acid-Base Balance Deck (41):
Enumerate organ systems
involved in the acid-base balance;
Respiratory & excretory test
Strong acids: pKa values
Strong bases: pKa values > __
Identify: most important buffer system
when it comes to acid-base balance
Bicarbonate buffer system
Which is true?
A. For acids, raising the pH above the pKa will cause the acid to dissociate and yield an H+
B. For bases, lowering the pH below the pKa will cause the base to release OH−
Effectiveness of buffer depends on the ff, except:
A.pKa of the buffering system
B.pOH of the substance
C.pH of the environment in which it is placed
Which are extracellular buffers?
A and C
Which are intracellular buffers?
B and D
has more immediate effect in terms of buffering
normal extracellular H+ value: identiify
36 to 44 nmol/L
Which is not a consequence of abnormal extracellular H+ value?
true about bicarbonate buffer system
A.H2CO3 dissociates into CO2 and H2O, allowing CO2 to be eliminated by the lungs and H+ as water
B.changes in CO2 modify the functional rate of kidneys
C.HCO3- concentration can be altered by the lungs
B - modify ventilation rate dapat
C - by kidneys dapat
Bicarbonate buffer system immediately counters the effects of:
A. ketone bodies
B. lactic acid
C. non-volatile acids
What is the role of phosphate buffer system?
plays a role in plasma and red blood cells and is involved in the exchange of sodium ion in the urine H+ filtrate
main component of plasma protein
the imidazole groups of histidine
Differentiate the two types of acidosis/alkalosis.
primary respiratory - disorder caused by ventilatory dysfunction
non-respiratory - caused by bicarbonate imbalance. (renal, metab func)
Which is/are false?
A. If the imbalance is of nonrespiratory origin, the body compensates by altering ventilation
B. For disturbances of the respiratory component, the kidneys compensate by selectively excreting or reabsorbing anions and cations
C. Lungs - don't compensate immediately, but response is often complete
D. Kidneys - faster to respond, but short term and incomplete
C and D
fully compensated - normal range ang pH
identify ratio for this
20 carbonic acid: 1 bicarbonate
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS is a decrease in bicarbonate. The ff can make this happen, except:
A.the direct administration of an acid-producing substance, such as ammonium chloride and calcium chloride
B.by lack of formation of organic acids as seen with diabetic ketoacidosis and starvation
C.reduced excretion of acids, as in renal tubular acidosis
D.excessive loss of bicarbonate from diarrhea or drainage from a biliary, pancreatic, or intestinal fistula
Which is false?
A. symptoms of metabolic acidosis are hard to diagnose
B. If alkalosis comes with vomiting, H2SO4 is excreted.
deep, rapid breathing; classically associated with diabetic ketoacidosis
Main diagnostic procedure for metabolic acidosis
Arterial blood gas sampling
Which may not lead to respiratory acidosis?
A.chronic hypercarbia in COPD patients
B.less lung surface for gas exchange
Alcohol depresses respi func --> CO2 accum
Differentiate acute respi acidosis fr chronic:
chronic does not have acidemia
acute does not have elevated serum bicarbonate
Which factor may not cause metabolic alkalosis (gain in bicarbonate)?
Alcohol --> respi acidosis
Which factor may not cause respi alkalosis (loss in CO2)?
B - for metabolic alkalosis
___ receives electron pairs from the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 leading to the release of the energy used to synthesize ATP from the phosphorylation of ADP
Each adult hemoglobin molecule combine reversibly with
up to __ molecules of oxygen
The actual amount of oxygen loaded onto hemoglobin depends on all except
A.Concentration and types of hemoglobin
C.Temperature of the blood
Identify hemoglobin type
hemoglobin not bound to oxygen but capable of forming
a bond when oxygen is available
Identify type of hemoglobin
hemoglobin bound to CO
(bond between CO and Hb is reversible but is 200 times
as strong as the bond between O2
Identify type of hemoglobin
hemoglobin unable to bind
oxygen because iron is in an oxidized rather than reduced state; Fe3
+ can be reduced by methemoglobin
reductase (red blood cells)
2,3-diphosphoglycerate - An organophosphate created in __ during
Does not cause increase in 2,3-DPG
D.congestive heart failure
In oximeter, pO2 measurement is amperometric – what does this mean?
that the amount of
current flow is an indication of the oxygen present
pCO2 and pH measurements are potentiometric - what does this mean
change in voltage indicates the activity of each analyte
The actual percent __(O2
etermined spectrophotometrically using a CO-oximeter
designed to directly measure the various hemoglobin
If the specimen is exposed to air, pH (increases, decreases)
If the specimen is RT > 30 min, pH (increases, decreases)
If the specimen is RT > 30 min, pCO2 (increases, decreases)