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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (68)
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1

Differentiate type 1 fr type 2 diabetes

•type 1 (beta cell destruction with absolute insulin deficiency)

type 2 (insulin resistance and an insulin secretory defect)

2

False about carbs
A.measured in serum or plasma only
B.bconcentration in blood is normally controlled within narrow limits by many hormones
C.most significant in carb metab- insulin

A
Whole blood pwede rin

3

Which is not produced by the endocrine pancreas?
A. amylase
B. insulin
C. glucagon
D. somatostatin

A

4

incretins are peptide hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells. they affect all except:
A. pancreatic function
B. gastric emptying
C. bile production
D. intestinal motility

C

5

False about insulin
A. facilitates ketogenesis
B. produced @ beta cells
C. in-charge of glycogen formation
D. AOTA

A

glucagon in charge dito

6

False about glucagon
A. facilitates ketogenesis
B. produced @ delta cells
C. acts primarily in the liver
D. AOTA

B

alpha cells produce this

7

false about somatostatin
A. facilitates glucose uptake
B. produced @ delta cells
C. inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion
D. AOTA

A
insulin in charge dito

8

produced in F cells
A. pancreatic polypeptide
B. insulin
C. glucagon
D. somatostatin

A

9

Which is/are false?
A. Anabolism is favored when there is a relative decrease in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio
B. Catabolism is favored with a relative increase in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio
C. C-peptide and proinsulin measurements appear to be less affected by hemolysis
D. Serum glucagon levels are rarely measured in clinical practice

A and B
baliktad kasi

10

false about amylin
A. It can inhibit insulin secretion, slow gastric emptying, and inhibit postprandial glucagon secretion
B. Low levels: seen in type 2 diabetes
C. its analogs may be helpful in diabetes management by limiting postprandial glucose excursions

B
type 1 dapat

11

pramlintide acetate - available for use by injection before major meals in patients with insulin-requiring diabetes

This substance is composed of?
A. amylase
B. insulin
C. glucagon
D. amylin

D

12

False about proinsulin
A. may cross-react with insulin in some insulin radioimmunoassays
B. healthy infants and preterm neonates have higher amounts than adults
C. it has a longer half-life than insulin
D. it has none of the biological activity of insulin

D

13

Elevated proinsulin + metabolites have been found in all except:
(basis: the lecture slides)
A. Type 2 diabetes
B. Pre-type 1 diabetes
C. Pancreatitis
D. Familial hyperproinsulinemia

C

14

proinsulin --> insulin ; what segment is removed in the last step? Its levels are measured in hypoglycemic states to help identify the cause of the hypoglycaemia.

identify

C- peptide

15

Which is true?
A. C-peptide & insulin are secreted in equal amounts at the portal vein, hence they have equal ratio in serum.
B. In healthy individuals, the half-life of both C-peptide is shorter than insulin.
C. In cirrhosis, hyperinsulinemia is observed as the result of decreased hepatic insulin clearance.
D. In normal individuals, the molar ratio of C-peptide to insulin in the fasting state is 1 : 5

C

16

Define hepatic insulin clearance.

approximately 50% of insulin is rapidly removed by its initial passage through the liver

17

a high insulin level in the presence of a low glucose level may suggest all, except:
A. Inappropriate secretion or administration of insulin
B. Additional insulin needed for secretion, to keep blood glucose levels normal
C Presence of insulin-secreting tumours
D.Extremely low insulin and proinsulin levels with hypoglycemic symptoms

D
elevated dapat

18

Differentiate insulinoma patients from hypoglycaemic patients using insulin

• Insulinoma patients: high insulin and C-peptide levels
• Hypoglycemic patients using insulin: high insulin levels and low C-peptide levels Commercially available insulin preparations are free of C-peptide and proinsulin

19

Normal fasting plasma glucagon concentrations: identify range

25–50 pg/mL

20

What effect refers to the greater and earlier insulin response to the oral administration of glucose compared with intravenous glucose?

incretin effect

21

Enumerate the 2 Most important incretins in the regulation of insulin secretion:

• Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
• Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

22

Which is not a function of glucagon-like peptide 1?
A. rapidly stimulate glucagon secretion in response to a meal,
B. inhibition of gastric emptying
C. promote weight loss
D. stimulate beta cell proliferation

A
insulin dapat

23

What inactivates GLP-1 by removing two N-terminal amino acids?

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4

24

Name a once- weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP- 1) agonist for the management of type II diabetes.

dulaglutide

25

false about somatostatin
A. has nonendocrine function
B. not found in pituitary gland
C. inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion
D. AOTA

B

26

Name 2 long-acting somatostatin analogs used to treat neuroendocrine tumors, and other disorders of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.

ocreotide
lanreotide

27

Three enzyme systems used in glucose measurement - enumerate

glucose dehydrogenase
glucose oxidase
hexokinase

28

Two general methods used in glucose measurement - enumerate

Electrical current
Spectrophotometry

29

Enzyme in-charge when electric current is used to measure glucose

Glucose dehydrogenase

30

Enzymes in-charge when spectrophotometry is used to measure glucose

mutoarotase
Glucose dehydrogenase
Diaphorase