acid base balance Flashcards Preview

NCLEX > acid base balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in acid base balance Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
1

major lung chemical

CO
acid

2

kidney chemicals

bicarb and hydrogen

3

normal pH

7.35-7.45

4

acidotic vs alkalotic person

acidotic = lethargic
alkalotic = excitable

5

compensating organs

kidneys and lungs

kidneys: remove excess acid and bicarb by excreting them through urine or retain hydrogen and bicarb
respond slow

lungs: exhale to get rid of CO2
hyperventilation decreases CO2 and decreases so alkalosis
hypoventilation increases CO2 and increases so acidosis
respond fast

6

respiratory acidosis

lungs have issues
kidneys compensate with bicarb and hydrogen
CO2 is causing the problem
too much CO2
hypoventilating
body must excrete hydrogen and retain bicarb
low pH

7

normal PaO2

80-100

8

normal PaCO2

35-45

9

HCO3 normal

22-26

10

CO2 and O2 relationship

inverse
Increase CO2 = decreased LOC
increase CO2 = decreased O2

11

respiratory acidosis causes

retain CO2
mid abdominal incision
narcotics
sleeping pills
pneumothorax
collapsed lung
pneumonia

12

respiratory acidosis s/s

headache
confused
sleepy
coma
hypoxic (restless and tachycardia)

13

respiratory acidosis treatment

fix breathing issue
pneumonia: liquefy and mobilize secretions (percussion, deep breathing, suction, fluids, HOB increase, IS)
pneumothorax will have chest tubes
turn, cough and deep breath

14

respiratory alkalosis patho

lung issue
kidneys compensate
too little CO2
hyperventilating
body excretes bicarb and retain hydrogen

15

respiratory alkalosis causes

hyperventilation
hysterical situation
acute aspirin OD
breathing too fast and removing CO2

16

respiratory alkalosis s/s

lightheaded
peri oral numbness
numbness and tingling in toes and fingers

17

respiratory alkalosis treatment

sedation
treat cause

18

metabolic acidosis

kidney issue
lungs compensate with CO2
too little bicarb
too much hydrogen
RR increases to get rid of acid

19

metabolic acidosis causes

DKA
starvation
renal failure
severe diarrhea (lower GI think losing base)

20

metabolic acidosis s/s

hyperkalemia: muscle twitching, muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis, arrhythmia
increased RR (Kussmaul)
serum K goes up

21

metabolic acidosis treatment

treat cause

22

metabolic alkalosis

kidney issue
lungs compensate with CO2
too much bicarb
too little hydrogen

23

metabolic alkalosis causes

loss of upper GI contents
upper GI think acid-- losing acid
too many antacids-- too much base

24

metabolic alkalosis s/s

depends on cause
observe LOC
serum K goes down
monitor for muscle cramps and arrythmias

25

metabolic alkalosis treatment

fix issue
replace potassium

26

compensation

ph is normal = fully
ph is abnormal = partial
compensate when PCO2 and HCO2 are abnormal