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advanced directives

living will
***over 18

A Living Will is a legal document that specifically states medical treatments a person would and would not like to receive to sustain life should the person become permanently unconscious or terminally ill, for example.

A Medical Power of Attorney is a type of Advance Directive that appoints a health care agent to make decisions on the person’s behalf when the person is unable to do so. This person is usually a spouse, but can be a family member, close friend or any other person who the client feels will make sure their wishes are met.


ethical principles

Nonmaleficence is best illustrated with the nurse’s action, as the goal is to do no harm to the client. With timely reporting of an error, further complications may be prevented.

Beneficence refers to doing good. This may include compassion and kindness.

Justice refers to equitable distribution of resources. Triage in the ED is one action that illustrates justice.

Fidelity refers to truth-telling. If the client were to ask if a medication error was made, the nurse would answer yes to the question as a way of demonstrating fidelity.



Maslow’s pyramid is designed to show that things at the base of the pyramid are higher priority than those at the top. Here are the categories starting at the bottom:

• Physiological needs refer to things we need to live. Examples are air, water, and food.

• Safety needs refer to things like being free from danger and having adequate shelter.

• Love and belonging include the need for affection and belonging to a group (like family).

• Esteem includes self-esteem and approval from others.

• Self-actualization means meeting an individual’s full potential


ABCs / MAAUAR method

ABCs as the highest and greatest priorities which are then followed with the 2nd and 3rd priority level needs. The 2nd priority needs include MAAUAR which is mental status, acute pain, acute impaired urinary elimination, unresolved and unaddressed needs, abnormal diagnostic test results, and risks. The 3rd level priorities include all concerns and problems addressed with the 2nd level priority needs. Here is a list of priorities:

Priority 1: Critical

Ensure a patent airway.

Assess for breathing problems.

Assess for a pulse.

Assess other vital signs.

Assess labs that are critical.

Priority 2: Urgent

Altered mental status.


Untreated medical problems.

Priority 3: Normal

Most other health issues.




how to use cane

First, with cane on stronger side of body, support body weight with both legs. This will support the even distribution of weight away from the weaker side to promote a normal gait.

Second, move cane forward 6-10 inches (15-25 cm). Moving the cane the approximate distance of a normal gait helps with stability.

Third, advance weaker leg forward toward the cane. This allows the weight to be supported by the cane and the stronger leg.

Fourth, advance stronger leg forward toward the cane. This allows the weight to be supported by the can and weaker leg.


normal VS for adults and children