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Flashcards in Acid-base Regulation Deck (35)
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1

What is an acid?

A substance that can release or donate an H+

2

What is a base?

A substance that can combine with or accept an H+

3

What is the Ka?

Acid dissociation constant
Equilibrium constant/ionization constant

4

The higher the dissociation constant....

The more an acid is ionized and the greater its strength

5

What are some strong acids?

HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4, HNO3

6

What are some weak acids?

Acetic acids, lactic acid, H2CO3, NH4+, H2PO4-

7

pKa is _____ to acid strenth.

Inversely proportional

8

What are some ways that acid could be produced in the body?

Metabolism -> CO2
Incomplete carbohydrate and fat metabolism -> nonvolatile acid
Protein metabolism > strong acid

9

The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) is found...

1 mEq H+/kg body weight

10

Acid production via CO2.

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-

11

What are the pH regulation mechanism?

Chemical buffering
Respiratory response
Renal response

12

What is the first line of pH flux defense and what does it do?

Chemical buffering
Minimizes a change in pH
DOES NOT remove acid or base

13

What is the second line of defense and what does it do?

Respiratory response
Remove CO2

14

What is the third line of defense and what does it do?

Renal response
Remove excess H+
Add new HCO3-
Slow

15

What is the main buffer pair?

HCO3-/CO2
Mixture of weak acid and conjugate base or vice verse

16

What is normal arterial PCO2 and [HCO3-]?

40 mmHg, 24 mmol/L

17

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

pH = 6.1 + log([HCO3-] / 0.03 x PCO2)

18

What is chloride shift?

HCO3- diffuses out of RBC
RBC membrane is relatively impermeable to H+
Cl- diffuses into the RBC to maintain electrical neutrality

19

What is the process of forming CO2 in the lungs?

H+ + HCO3- H2CO3 H2O + CO2

20

What is the enzyme which aid in the formation of H2CO3?

Carbonic anhydrase

21

What is a titratable acid?

Number of mEq OH- needed to bring the urine pH back to the pH of blood
Presents the amount of H+ that is excreted combine with urinary buffers like phosphate or creatinine

22

What acid in renal acidifcation is nor titratable?

Ammonia (NH3/NH4+)

23

If H+ is lost in the urine it is the same as....

Adding more HCO3- to the blood

24

What is a simple acid-base disturbance?

Single primary cause for the disturbance

25

Acidosis

Acid addition/ alkali loss

26

Alkalosis

Alkali addition/ acid loss

27

Respiratory acidosis with renal compensation is present when PCO2 is ____ and HCO3- is ____.

High, low

28

Respiratory alkalosis with renal compensation is present when PCO2 is ____ and HCO3- is ____.

Low, high

29

Metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation is present when PCO2 is ____ and HCO3- is ____.

Low, low

30

Metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation is present when PCO2 is ____ and HCO3- is ____.

High, high