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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (29)
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1

What are some forms of regulatory control?

Secretion (feedback)
Targeted cellular response (receptor)
Built in cellular amplification system

2

What is the first messenger to a cellular response?

A signal extracellularly

3

What are the second messengers to cellular response?

Cellular messengers to effectors

4

What is a hormone?

Substance produced in one tissue or organ and released into the blood and carried to other organs where it acts to produce a specific response

5

What do most hormones act as?

Cell surface receptors

6

What is cellular effector?

Molecule which modulates cellular activity

7

What is signal transduction?

How an external signal becomes an internal response
Relay molecules is the signal pathway

8

What are some therapeutic targets?

Receptors, second messengers or effector proteins

9

What are endocrine hormones?

Released by specialized tissues
Transported via bloodstream
Influence remote region of the body

10

What are paracrine hormones?

Influence neighboring cells/tissues
Local

11

What are autocrine hormones?

Affect the same cell they were secreted from

12

What are neuroendocrine hormones?

Secreted by neurons into bloodstream
Affect distant targets

13

What are the 7 classic endocrine organs?

Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, testes, ovary, adrenal cortex/medulla and endocrine pancreas

14

What are some other "endocrine" organs?

CNS, GI tract, heart, kidney

15

What is an ectopic endocrine organ?

Tumor - neoplastic hormone production

16

What the peptide hormones?

Anterior pituitary hormones (GH, LH, FSH, TSH, ACTH, PRL)
Posterior pituitary hormones (ADH/vasopressin, oxytocin)
Pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon
Parathyroid: PTH

17

What are the steroid hormones?

Gonadal: estrogens, androgens, prosgestins
Adrenal cortex: cortisol, aldosterone

18

What are the amine hormones?

Adrenal medulla: catecholamines (EPI, NE)
Thyroid: thyroid: T4 and T3

19

Which endocrine hormones are water soluble?

Peptides, catecholamines
Dissolved in plasma
Mostly acute, short-term action

20

What endocrine hormones are somewhat water-soluble?

Steroids, thyroid hormones

21

How must somewhat water-soluble endocrine hormones move in the plasma?

90% circulate bound to plasma proteins like albumin
Sex hormone binding globulin
Free hormones go into tissues (hormone reservoir)

22

What endocrine hormones are lipophilic and how to they travel?

Thyroid hormones, gonadal and adrenal steroids
Intracellular receptors
Activate transcription/ protein synth
Membrane receptors

23

What is the "G" in the G-protein receptor coupling?

GTP-binding protein: amplified response

24

How does G-protein receptor coupling work?

Couple receptor activation to effector activity
Heterotrimeric structure: alpha and beta-gamma subunits

25

How is the G-protein receptor shut off?

GTPase activity of alpha unit to deactivate

26

What does phosphorylation do?

Alters protein activity

27

What is Gs?

Stimulatory G-protein

28

What is the secondary messenger to G-protein receptors?

Cyclic AMP

29

What does cAMP amplify?

pKa (?)