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Flashcards in Liver Physiology Deck (21)
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1

What are the main liver functions?

Exocrine
Endocrine
Clotting
Plasma proteins
Excretory/degradative
Organic metabolism
Storage

2

How much oxygen does the liver use?

20% of what is breathed in

3

What are the fuels of the liver?

Sugars, ethanol, amino acids
Fat when fasting

4

What does the liver need for detox and synth?

A lot of ATP and NADPH

5

What does the liver need a lot of sugar for?

To my glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glucouronides

6

What are the main functions of the liver as an exocrine organ?

Synthesize/secrete bile salts
Secrete bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid

7

what are the main functions of the liver as an endocrine organ?

Secretes insulin-like growth factor in response to growth hormone
Synthesizes T3 and T4
Activates some Vit D
Secretes angiotensinogen (renin acts on this)
Secretes cytokines and metabolizes hormones

8

What is growth hormone most important for?

Post-natal growth

9

Describe the path of growth hormone.

Synthesized i the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate cell division is many tissues
Liver responds to GH by releasing IGF-1 to stimulate growth
Excretion or metabolism of hormones to clear form serum

10

What are the main function of the liver as a clot helper thing?

Synthesizes clotting factors like prothrombin, fibrinogen, factors V, VII, IX, X, alpha2-macroglobulin

11

What if a pt has liver disease/damage?

Clotting will heavily be effective

12

What is the main function of the liver in terms of plasma protein?

Synth albumin, acute phase proteins, hormone and trace element binding proteins, lipoprotein, lymph

13

Describe albumin.

55-60% of serum protein
Critical role in buffering osmotic pressure of blood
Carrier of many molecules

14

Describe acute phase proteins.

Can inc (positive) or dec (negative) in response to systemic inflammation, infection

15

What are the main functions of the liver in excretion/degradation?

Secretes bilirubin, cholesterol and bile pigment
Many xenobiotics, metal etc into bile
Biotransformitive of endogenous molecules
Recycles old erythrocytes

16

What happens to heme degraded to bilirubin?

Carried in the blood by albumin, conjugated to form diglucuronide in the liver and excreted in the bile. Iron is returned to the body's iron stores

17

Describe CYP450.

57 genes for them
Located primarily in liver and intestines
Intracellular - located in mitochondrial membrane or ER
Heme cofactor
Electrons come from NADPH by CytP450 reductase

18

What are the organic metabolism functions of the liver?

Sugar metabolism
Amino acid metabolism
Fat metabolism
Sterol metabolism

19

What pathways are sugar metabolism?

Glycolysis
Gluconeogenesis
Pentose phosphate pathway
Glycogen

20

How is glycogen metabolism controlled?

Glycogen phosphorylase allosterically activated by AMP and inhibited by ATP, glucose 6 and phosphate
Glycogen synthase stimulated by glucose-6-P

21

What are the storage functions of the liver?

Stores blood
Vitamins and minerals
Glucose (glycogen)