Activation Of Adaptive Immunity - Bowden Flashcards Preview

HDM - Midterm > Activation Of Adaptive Immunity - Bowden > Flashcards

Flashcards in Activation Of Adaptive Immunity - Bowden Deck (49):
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What is MHC also referred to as? 8

HLA (human leukocyte antigens)

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Where are type I MHC found? 8

On all nucleated cells

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Where are type II MHC found? 8

Found on professional APCs

Dendritic cells
Macrophages
B lymphocytes

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Why do T cells need HLAs (MHCs)? 10

T cells cannot recognize free or soluble Ag, they need to be presented to

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What chromosome is MHC/HLA genes found on? 11

Chromosome 6

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How many classes of HLA are there? 11

3 classes (I, II, and III)

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Which HLA locus of MHC class I has the greatest number of allotypes? 13

HLA locus B 439

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Which HLA locus of MHC class II has the greatest number of allotypes? 13

HLA locus DRB1 269

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What codes for Class I HLA (MHC)? 14

HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-C

3 separate genes

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Where is the peptide binding groove on Class I HLA(MHC)

Between the α1 and α2 domains

This site has the greatest polymorphisms

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Where is the α chain of class I HLA (MHC) synthesized? 17

Translated into the ER as a glycoproteins

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How many different alleles of Class I HLA can be expressed at the same time? 18

6 different allelic expressions 1

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What is the structure of the Class II HLA (MHC)? 20

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Where is the peptide binding groove for Class II HLA (MHC)? 21

Formed by the α1 and β1 domains

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Where is Class II HLA (MHC) synthesized? 22

The α and β chains are synthesized into the ER where a third protein called the invariant chain is added

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What is the role of the invariant chain within Class II HLA (MHC)? 22

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What kind of end does the groove of Class II HLA (MHC) have? 23

An open-ended groove

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What are some main features of Class I and Class II HLA? 24

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What is a minor HLA class? What chromosome is it encoded from? 26

H-Y

Encoded on the Y chromosome

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What are H-Y class HLA associated with? 26

Acute rejection of male grafts in female recipients

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What does CD4 of Th cells bind on APCs? 27

β-2 on class 2 HLA (MHCs)

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What is the principle function of Dendritic cells? 29

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What is the principle function of macrophages? What type of response do they play a role in? 29

Ag presentation to CD4

cell-mediated responses

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What is the principle function of B lymphocytes? What type of response do they play a role in? 29

Ag presentation to CD4

humoral immune response

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What kind of Processing pathway deals with intracellular pathogens and self? 31

Class I HLA (MHC)

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What processing pathway deals with extracellular pathogens? 31

Class II HLA (MHC)

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What happens in the class II HLA (MHC) pathway? 32

Protein Ag brought in via endosome

Lysosomes binds with endosome (digestion)

A CLIP is removed from HLA-DM making it Active

HLA-DM can now bind Ag peptide for presentation

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What happens in the Class I HLA (MHC) pathway? 34

Virus produces proteins either in cytosol or phagosome of host cell

These proteins are ubiquinated

Ubiquinated viral proteins run through proteasome (digestion)

TAP on the ER surface grabs viral peptides

TAP (with Tapasin) loads peptide on Class I HLA (MHC)

Loaded HLA I goes to Golgi and then is presented on outside of cell

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What's happening during cross-presentation? 36

If virus infects a DC and enters cytosol the DC can express as HLA (MHC) I to signal a CTL (CD8)

Normally, DC can phagosome virus and present as HLA II (MHC) to signal a Th (CD$)

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What mutation causes Ankylosing spondylitis? What is it? 40

expression of HLA-B27

Inflammation of the spine

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What causes rheumatic fever? 41

Pt. Gets strep throat (streptococcus pyrogenes)

Ab produced in response react with cardiac tissue

If HLA-DR4 allele is expressed = rheumatic fever

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What are the HLA associations with Sjogren's Syndrome, Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus, and Psoriasis? 41

Sjogren's Syndrome - HLA-DR3

Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus - HLA-DQw8

Psoriasis - HLA-B3

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