Introduction To Immunology - Bowden Flashcards Preview

HDM - Midterm > Introduction To Immunology - Bowden > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction To Immunology - Bowden Deck (29):
1

What is the major cytokine of lymphocyte synthesis? 9

IL-7

2

Where are Pro-T and Pro-B cells generated? 10

Red Bone Marrow

3

What is DiGeorge Syndrome? 11

Deletion of 22q11.21 - 22q11.23

4

What are the symptoms of DiGeorge Syndrome? 11

Thymic hypoplasia or aplasia

Hypoparathyroidism

Congenital cardiac malformation

Degree of severity depends on degree of thymic loss

5

What makes a lymphocyte naive? 12

Because they have not encountered antigen yet

6

What happens if a naive lymphocyte encounters their correspondent Ag (attached to an APC)? 12

They undergo clonal expansion and become activated

7

What tissue do dendritic cells travel to once bound by Ag? 13

Secondary lymphoid tissue

8

What cytokines activate a dendritic cell? 13

Acute phase cytokines

IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α

9

What Ab is passed through to the fetus when in the placenta? What Ab is passed during the first year after birth? 17

Placenta - IgG from maternal circulation

After birth - IgA from breast milk

10

How do T helper cells actually help macrophages? 19

T helper cells secrete cytokines that enhance and make the macrophages more potent killers

11

What are the three different types of T helper cells? 20

Th1

Th2

Th17

12

What cytokines does Th1 secrete? 20

IFNγ (macrophage activation)

IL-12

13

What cytokines does TH2 secrete? 20

IL-4

IL-5 (eosinophils)

IL-13

14

What cytokines does TH17 secrete? 20

IL-17A

IL-17F

IL-22 (epithelial barrier maintenance)

15

What is the action of TH1 cells? 20

Macrophages activation

IgG production

16

What is the role of TH2 cells? 20

Mast cell activation

Eosinophil activation

IgE production

M2 alternative macrophage activation

17

What is the role of TH17 cells? 20

Neutrophilic monocytic inflammatory response (antibacterial response)

18

How do we get Th1 cells? What induces them? 21

Two types of APC (DC and macrophage) secrete IL-12 once they have ingested a pathogen

IL-12 induces a naive T cell to become a TH1

19

What is happening during a primary immune response? 25

This is the first time the Ag is encountered

Activation of naive cells

generation of memory

Days - weeks

20

What happens during a secondary immune response? 25

Ag has already been encountered

Memory cells already have been activated

Hours to days?

21

What is an example of passive immunization? 26

Ex. Introduction of an antibody or antiserum (IV antibiotics)

No memory, but specificity

22

What is a example of an active immunization? 26

Ex. Introduction of an antigen

Provokes a primary immune response

Has memory
Has specificity

23

What is an example of a artificial active immunization? 26

Vaccination (with an antigen)

24

What are the markers for B cells? 27

CD19

CD21

25

What marker do ALL T cells have in common? 27

CD3

26

What marker do ALL T helper cells have in common? 27

CD3

CD4

27

What markers do CTLs have? 27

CD3

CD8

28

How do T helper cells activate macrophages once a pathogen has been identified? 21

TH1 helper cells presented with Ag and IL-12 from a APC secrete IFN-γ

IFN-γ activates macrophages

29

What's a scenario in which T helper cells (CD4) and Cytotoxic T cells (CD8) could cooperate? 23

Activated/primed Macrophage presents Ag to naive T cell along with IL-12

Naive T cell matures into Th1

Th1 secretes IFN-γ to that same macrophage

Macrophage kills pathogens concealed in phagosome, but some pathogen is not contained in a phagosome

CD8 cytotoxic T cell destroys macrophage and the uncontrolled pathogen within