Flashcards in Introduction To Innate Immunology - Bowden Deck (38):
What is the innate immunity specific to?
PAMPs - Pathogen-associated molecular patterns
What are the three components of the innate immunity?
Barriers --> skin & secretion
What are the three kinds of phagocytes?
What are the two major functions of macrophages?
M1 - Classical Macrophages
M2 - Alternative Macrophages
What is the major role of M1 Macrophages?
Innate immunity and inflammation
What is the major role of M2 Macrophages?
Tissue repair (wound healing) and control of inflammation
What are the CD markers for Neutrophils?
What is the major component of pus?
What recruits cytokiones & chemokines attract Neutrophils?
What is the role of macrophages in a:
Resting --> garbage collectors
Active/primed --> APCs
Hyperactivated --> extremely phagocytic via influence of Th
What is the major CD marker for macrophages and what does it bind?
CD14 which binds LPS
LPS - lipopolysaccharide
What is the role of TGH-β?
Why are PAMPs such a good identifier of bacteria?
Our innate immunity recognizes PAMPs that are very vital to the viability of bacteria, they can't mutate to evade the innate system
What does TLR-4 mainly identify?
LPS - Lipopolysaccharide
Aka gram negative bacteria
What does TLR-1:TLR-2 identify?
What does TLR-2 identify?
Aka Gram positive bacteria
What is opsonization?
An additional way to identify pathogens besides PAMP recognition
Relies on complement binding to bacteria
What occurs in oxygen-independent killing 27
Lysosomes binds with phagosome releasing enzymes and myeloperoxidase
What is oxygen-dependent killing? 27
Oxygen pumped into phagosome by NADPH oxidase
Myeloid Peroxidase uses O2 to produce peroxide (H2O2) to digest bacteria)
What disease is associated with microtubule defects?
What's occurring in Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
There is a microtubule defect causing an inhibition of fusion result in recurrent pyogenic (pus) infections
What disease correlates with inherited deficiency in NADPH oxidase?
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
What happens when NADPH oxidase is deficient as in Chronic Granulomatous Disease?
Unable to produce reactive oxygen species
Catalase positive microorganisms prevail = major hallmark
What cells produce TNF (tumor necrosis factor)?
What does TNF do? 33
Induces acute phase protein synthesis
What cells produce IL-1? 33
What is the role of IL-12? 33
What is the role of IFN-α and IFN-β? 33, 34
Natural anti-viral cytokines = naturally inhibit viral replication through inhibition of protein synthesis
Promotes wound repair
What is the combined role of IL-15 and IL-18? 33
What is the role of interferons in virally infected cells? 35
Virally infected cells secrete IFN-α and IFN-β
Induce resistance to viral replication in other cells
Increase MHC class I expression (APC presentation)
Activate NK cells
How does an NK cell gain entry to an infected cell and initiate apoptosis intrinsically? 37
First --> perforin forms a pore into the infected cell
Second --> granzyme B is pumped into the cell
How does an NK cell induce apoptosis extrinsically in an infected cell? 37
Binding of Fas ligand with their Fas receptor
What is the consequence if we have a deficiency in our phagocytes? 39
Increased susceptibility to extracellular bacteria and fungi
What is the consequence if we have a deficiency in our natural killer cells? 39
Increased susceptibility to viral infection (herpes simplex)
What is a consequence of leukocyte adhesion deficiency? 40
Pyogenic (pus) bacterial infections
What is a consequence of G6PD deficiency? 40
Defective respiratory burst and chronic infection