Introduction To Innate Immunology - Bowden Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction To Innate Immunology - Bowden Deck (38):
1

What is the innate immunity specific to?

PAMPs - Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

2

What are the three components of the innate immunity?

Barriers --> skin & secretion

Phagocytes

Cytokines

3

What are the three kinds of phagocytes?

Macrophages

Dendritic cells

Neutrophils

4

What are the two major functions of macrophages?

M1 - Classical Macrophages

M2 - Alternative Macrophages

5

What is the major role of M1 Macrophages?

Innate immunity and inflammation

6

What is the major role of M2 Macrophages?

Tissue repair (wound healing) and control of inflammation

7

What are the CD markers for Neutrophils?

CD15

CD16b

8

What is the major component of pus?

Neutrophils

9

What recruits cytokiones & chemokines attract Neutrophils?

IL-1

TNF-α

IL-8 (chemokine)

10

What is the role of macrophages in a:
Resting state
Activated/primed state
Hyperactivated state

Resting --> garbage collectors

Active/primed --> APCs

Hyperactivated --> extremely phagocytic via influence of Th

11

What is the major CD marker for macrophages and what does it bind?

CD14 which binds LPS

LPS - lipopolysaccharide

12

What is the role of TGH-β?

Antiinflammatory effects

Wound repair

13

Why are PAMPs such a good identifier of bacteria?

Our innate immunity recognizes PAMPs that are very vital to the viability of bacteria, they can't mutate to evade the innate system

14

What does TLR-4 mainly identify?

LPS - Lipopolysaccharide

Aka gram negative bacteria

15

What does TLR-1:TLR-2 identify?

Bacterial lipopeptides*

16

What does TLR-2 identify?

Bacterial peptidoglycan

Aka Gram positive bacteria

17

What is opsonization?

An additional way to identify pathogens besides PAMP recognition

Relies on complement binding to bacteria

18

What occurs in oxygen-independent killing 27

Lysosomes binds with phagosome releasing enzymes and myeloperoxidase

19

What is oxygen-dependent killing? 27

Oxygen pumped into phagosome by NADPH oxidase

Myeloid Peroxidase uses O2 to produce peroxide (H2O2) to digest bacteria)

20

What disease is associated with microtubule defects?

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

21

What's occurring in Chediak-Higashi syndrome?

There is a microtubule defect causing an inhibition of fusion result in recurrent pyogenic (pus) infections

22

What disease correlates with inherited deficiency in NADPH oxidase?

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

23

What happens when NADPH oxidase is deficient as in Chronic Granulomatous Disease?

Unable to produce reactive oxygen species

Catalase positive microorganisms prevail = major hallmark

24

What cells produce TNF (tumor necrosis factor)?

Macrophages

T Cells

Mast Cells

25

What does TNF do? 33

Activates inflammation

Induces acute phase protein synthesis

Induces apoptosis

26

What cells produce IL-1? 33

Mast Cells

Macrophages

Endothelial Cells

Dendritic Cells

27

What is the role of IL-12? 33

(Answer)

28

What is the role of IFN-α and IFN-β? 33, 34

Natural anti-viral cytokines = naturally inhibit viral replication through inhibition of protein synthesis

29

IL-10 role

Promotes wound repair

30

What is the combined role of IL-15 and IL-18? 33

Proliferation

31

What is the role of interferons in virally infected cells? 35

Virally infected cells secrete IFN-α and IFN-β

Induce resistance to viral replication in other cells

Increase MHC class I expression (APC presentation)

Activate NK cells

32

How does an NK cell gain entry to an infected cell and initiate apoptosis intrinsically? 37

First --> perforin forms a pore into the infected cell

Second --> granzyme B is pumped into the cell

33

How does an NK cell induce apoptosis extrinsically in an infected cell? 37

Binding of Fas ligand with their Fas receptor

34

What is the consequence if we have a deficiency in our phagocytes? 39

Increased susceptibility to extracellular bacteria and fungi

35

What is the consequence if we have a deficiency in our natural killer cells? 39

Increased susceptibility to viral infection (herpes simplex)

36

What is a consequence of leukocyte adhesion deficiency? 40

Pyogenic (pus) bacterial infections

37

What is a consequence of G6PD deficiency? 40

Defective respiratory burst and chronic infection

38

What are the three main components of Lysosomes? 27

Lysozyme

Defensins

Hydrolytic Enzymes