Activation Of Innate Immunity - Bowden Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Activation Of Innate Immunity - Bowden Deck (35):
1

What does the IL-1/IL-6/TNF-α cocktail do? 7

Bone marrow --> neutrophil mobilization

Liver --> acute phase proteins (APP) produce Ex. Mannose binding lectin, C-reactive

Hypothalamus --> increased body temperature

Fat & Muscle --> energy mobilization for heat

2

What causes fever? 8

IL-1/IL-6/TNF-α cocktails effect on the hypothalamus

3

What are the physiological effects of fever? 8

Bacterial and viral replication slows

Human cells become more resistant to negative effects of TNF-α

Makes the adaptive immune system more potent

4

What causes the liver to produce APP? 9

Macrophages secrete IL-6 (also IL-1) causing the liver to produce acute phase proteins

5

What is the most widely used indicator of acute inflammation? 10

C-Reactive protein (can increase 100-1000x)

6

What is TNF-α effect (alone) on endothelial cells? 11

Increased membrane permeability

7

What is the coupled action of TNF and IL-1? 11

Expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cell surfaces

Causes leukocytes to secrete IL-1 & IL-6

8

When could you say that complement was acting as part of the humoral immunity? 13

When the classical pathway of complement is active

9

What's happening in the Alternative pathway of complement pathways? 14

aka the lectin pathway

C3 --> C3b + C3a (constantly happening)

C3b cleaves C5

C5 --> C5b + C5a

C5b helps to form the MAC

10

What is an incredibly good opsonizer? 14

C3b

11

What is the most potent Anaphylatoxin? 15

C5a

12

What do anaphylatoxins do? 15

Induce smooth muscle contraction

Induce degranulation of mast cells/basophils

Induce vasodilation

Induce membrane permeability

13

What are the anaphylatoxins? 15

C3a, C4a, C5a

14

What is the coupled role of IL-1 and TNF-α? 17

To increase expression of P & E selectins on endothelium (the inside of blood vessels)

15

What slows down approaching neutrophils? 17

Expression of P & E selectins (bind, release, bind, release)

16

What is the purpose of causing a rolling effect in neutrophils by the endothelial selectins? 18

To allow the neutrophils to slow and be able to receive local chemokines

17

What is the effect of the release of IL-8 during cellular adhesion to endothelial cells by neutrophils? 18

To cause expression of integrins so that neutrophils can pass through the endothelium

18

What are the integrin binding components between a neutrophil and the endothelium? 18

Neutrophils - LFA1

Endothelial - ICAM1

19

What are the integrin binding components between a macrophage and endothelium cells? 18

Macrophage - VLA4

Endothelium - VCAM1

20

What are the three key processes of the acute inflammatory response? 20

Vasodilation

Increased vascular permeability

Emigration of leukocytes from blood into damaged area

21

What is omphalitis? What causes it?22

Lack of healing of the umbilical stump leads to infection

Caused by CGD chronic granulomatus disease

22

You get a cut on your hand. What do you Effect to be in there area within four hours, what about within 36 hours?

4 hours - neutrophils

36 hours - macrophages

23

What is LAD 1? 24

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency 1

Lack of CD11a expression integral to LFA-1 function (found on neutrophils)

24

What adhesion molecules do T cells use to bind endothelium? 26

Mac-1 (integrin)

25

What is the difference between LAD 1, 2, 3? 26

LAD I and III --> adhesion defect

LAD II --> rolling defect

26

What kind of relationship do CD11 and CD18 share? 26

They are coexpressed. A mutation in one will disable the other

27

With someone suffering from a Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency what would you expect not to find? 27

Absence of pus formation due to a lack of neutrophils

28

How does Stpahylococci evade the innate immune system? 28

They're resistant to reactive oxygen species through the production of catalase which breaks down reactive oxygen species

29

What are 3 acute phase proteins? 9

C-reactive proteins

Fibrinogen

Mannose-binding lectin

30

What is the function of C-reactive protein? 9

Acts as an opsonin by binding phosphorylcholine on bacterial surfaces

31

What is the function of mannose-binding lectin? 9

Acts as an opsonin by binding residues on bacterial surfaces

32

What is the lone effect of TNF-α on the heart, Endothelial cells, and muscle? 11

Heart --> lowers CO

Endothelial cells --> thrombus production and increased permeability

Muscle --> insulin resistance

33

What is the effect of pyrogens (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) on the bone marrow? 11

Leukocyte production

34

What is unique about TGF-β? 6

Allows for wound repair without regulatory immune cells in the vicinity

35

What secretes IL-10 and what is its function? 6

Macrophages, DC, and Tregs

Contraction of cells after threat elimination