Flashcards in Addison and Steele Deck (53):
What birth year do Addison and Steele share?
Who dies first?
Addison, in 1719; Steele follows ten years afterwards in 1729
Characterize Steele's Personality
He was more impulsive than Addison, which eventually resulted in his financial ruin.
Characterize Addison's Personality
He was more prudent than Steele, and ultimately more successful financially and academically than Steele.
To what political party did both Addison and Steele belong?
What university did each attend?
Both attended Oxford, though Steele didn't finish his degree
When did the Tatler launch? Who launched it?
1709; Steele; Although Addison and other friends contributed, Steele wrote most of it.
When did the Spectator launch?
1711; After the Tatler ended. Addison would dominate this publication.
What other type of writing did both Addison and Steele practice?
What drove them to a journalistic career?
Steele had debts and Addison lost his political office
Under what name did Steele launch the Tatler?
What was the novel format of the Tatler?
It aimed to mix news with personal reflections
What characterized the periodical writing of Addison and Steele?
The broad spectrum of aspects of English daily life, from social issues to philosophical discussions to literature and entertainment and more.
What boundary did Addison and Steele aim to break down in their writing for the Spectator?
The boundary between educating and entertaining their readers
Spectator's Club: Who wrote this essay?
Spectator's Club: What is the conceit of this essay?
This essay introduces the cast of characters in the fictional Spectator's Club that Addison and Steele will use to explore some of the issues of the day.
Spectator's Club: Who is Sir Roger de Coverley?
A Tory meant to represent the passing away of the old order. He is usually depicted in the country as eccentric but amiable - absurd but always innocent.
Spectator's Club: Who is Sir Andrew Freeport?
A Whig meant to represent the "new order" in which Addison and Steele both subscribed. He is a merchant ("new money") and is a person of business and the city of London.
Spectator's Club: Who are the unnamed members of the Spectator's club?
A lawman and a clergyman
Spectator's Club: Who is Sir Roger's heir?
Spectator's Club: Who is Captain Sentry?
A very honest and modest man who could not advance as well as he would have liked in the army because he does not have the air of a courtier. He has been on many military adventures and enjoys telling stories about them.
Spectator's Club: Describe Will Honeycomb.
He is a sweet talker, knowledgeable about fashion and women. He looks very young and is entertaining in conversation. It is emphasized that he might be a bit of a scoundrel with women, but he also knows all about them.
The Aims of the Spectator: Who wrote this essay?
The Aims of the Spectator: What does Addison propose the Spectator offers in comparison to other papers?
The chance to acquire self-knowledge, not just news of the world. It encourages active thought and discussion, not just entertainment or reports.
The Aims of the Spectator: Where does Addison suggest the paper takes its name from?
It is for "the spectators of the world"; those who live without having anything to do. It is for people who pay attention to the workings of culture and society, and want to form "right judgments" about what's going on.
The Aims of the Spectator: What is the main aim of the paper?
To both amuse and educate its readers; to be both thought-provoking and entertaining, and bring philosophical discussions into coffee houses and tea tables (as opposed to colleges etc)
The Aims of the Spectator: Who does Addison jokingly say the paper will benefit?
Men who are "blanks"; the kind that need conversation starters.
The Aims of the Spectator: Why does Addison say the paper will be useful to women?
He says that there is not enough quality diversions on the market for women. The Spectator is appropriate for women to read, and probably even good for them - they'll learn something.
Paradise Lost - General Critical Remarks: Who wrote this essay? In which periodical did it appear?
Paradise Lost - General Critical Remarks: What is Addison's general opinion of the poem?
He thinks very highly of it; it is almost "perfection"
Paradise Lost - General Critical Remarks: What aspect of the poem does Addison mainly consider in this essay?
Whether or not it should be considered epic poetry in the tradition of the Iliad or the Aeneid.
Paradise Lost - General Critical Remarks: What is the main criteria Addison will discuss in deciding if Paradise Lost qualifies as an epic poem?
Unity of Action
- One Action
- Entire Action
- Great Action
Paradise Lost - General Critical Remarks: In what ways does Addison suggest that Paradise Lost excels classical epics?
- All of what he depicts is related to the central action (one action)
- The beginning, middle, and end of his action are clearly delineated (entire action)
- The stakes are very high; all of mankind, not just a single person or nation. Plus, he subjects are the very best of men. (great action)
The Pleasures of Imagination: Who wrote this essay? In which periodical did it appear?
The Pleasures of Imagination: What is the most superior of our senses?
The Pleasures of Imagination: What is sight's relationship to imagination?
Sight furnishes the imagination with ideas, and it is this sense that allows pleasure in imagining things. Sight is the gateway to the pleasures of the imagination.
The Pleasures of Imagination: What does Addison mean by the Pleasures of the Imagination?
Such pleasures as originally arise from sight
The Pleasures of Imagination: What are the two kinds of pleasures of the imagination?
- Those which proceed from things which we have actually seen
- Secondary pleasures which flow from ideas of objects when objects are not actually present
The Pleasures of Imagination: What is the moral benefit of imagination?
Imagination keeps the mind busy, and thus more virtuous (less likely to fall into sloth or idleness)
The Pleasures of Imagination: Why is imagination good for health? Who is cited as an authority?
Imagination is good for health because, unlike "understanding", it does not require "too violent a labor of the brain."
Sir Francis Bacon is cited as an authority
The Pleasures of Imagination: What is meant in the essay by "understanding"?
"Understanding" is set in opposition to imagination, and seems to encompass what we might think of as science/history/math etc. It is knowledge based in fact.
An Editor's Troubles: Who wrote this essay? In what publication did it appear?
Steele; the Tatler
An Editor's Troubles: What is the conceit of this essay?
Steele gently mocks the many kinds of correspondence he receives from readers. For every person who approves of something he's written, another person criticizes him. He jokes that this keeps his ego from getting too big and has helped him uncover any personal flaws (and indeed any in his family history).
An Editor's Troubles: What particular kind of letters does Steele discuss in depth? What humorous anecdote does he tell about them?
He talks about "threats and menaces" he receives. To diffuse the seriousness of those letters, he tells an anecdote of a soldier who wrote a letter to his wife informing her of his imminent death (because of the slowness of the post, his letter would reach her after his death).
At the last minute, he gets a reprieve, but his wife has already received news of his death and remarried. The soldier lets things be, since she might have a legal case for having a letter in his own hand.
An Editor's Troubles: What two observations might we draw from this essay?
We get a chance to see both Steel's comic style and the variety of readers his paper attracts.
On Ambition; Heroism in Private Life: Who wrote this essay? In which periodical did it appear?
On Ambition; Heroism in Private Life: What is the key problem Steele is discussing here?
Those who have ambition and aspire to rise above others too often do it out of vanity, rather than morality. If men would channel their ambition into doing what THEY think is right and good, rather than what others think, they would be truly admirable.
On Ambition; Heroism in Private Life: What is Steele's conclusion?
Ambition for vanity's sake is bad - men should instead follow their own conscience and desires.
On the Effects of Public Mourning; Plainness in Dress: Who wrote this essay? In what periodical did it appear?
On the Effects of Public Mourning; Plainness in Dress: What inspired Steele to write this essay?
He happened to see a group of women dressed in mourning, and was struck by how beautiful the women were in all their "natural charms."
The plain dress they wore showed their natural beauty.
On the Effects of Public Mourning; Plainness in Dress: What is his main argument?
Women's faces are more beautiful than jewels or distracting, fancy clothes. Men would rather look at a woman than at her adornments.
It distresses Steele to see how much value women place on objects and trinkets rather than other parts of life.
On the Effects of Public Mourning; Plainness in Dress: What anecdote does Steele tell to prove his point?
He tells of his great aunt, Mrs. Margery Bickerstaff, who was in possession of a great fortune. Her family wanted to prevent her marrying so that her money could stay in the family.
Each time it seemed like the might marry, her family bought her a new fancy outfit. These outfits always elevated her self-importance so much that she lost any interest in marriage. She loved objects more than people, and the money were kept in the family (indeed, that is were the author got his fortune).