Flashcards in Utopia Deck (56):
Who is the author of Utopia?
Sir Thomas More
What was Thomas More's religion/denomination?
What was Thomas More's original profession?
What university did Thomas More attend?
In what language was Utopia originally composed?
Under which two prominent kings did Thomas More serve?
Henry VII and Henry VIII
What was the highest royal office Sir Thomas More held?
Lord Chancellor of England (appointed 1529)
What was Thomas More's opinion of Protestants?
He detested them. In his post at Lord Chancellor he ruthlessly prosecuted them, including torturing them and burning them at the stake.
For what sign of piety is Thomas More famously known?
Wearing a hair shirt
How did More die?
He was tried for Treason and decapitated in 1535. He was accused because he did not approve of Henry VIII's divorce and split from the Catholic Church. He is now honored as a Saint.
What personal, professional conflict of Sir Thomas More is explored in Utopia?
Whether or not he should go into service as an advisor for Henry VIII.
What text is the central model for Utopia?
When was Utopia published?
Who are the main characters in Utopia? What are their relationships to each other?
Thomas More, Peter Giles, Raphael Hythloday
The character Thomas More is very like the historical figure - he is serving as an ambassador in the Netherlands for Henry VIII. Peter Giles is likewise a real figure, More's friend. Hythloday is an invention - a traveler who has been to Utopia.
Why is the (character) Thomas More in the Netherlands?
Serving as an ambassador for Henry VIII and negotiating the English wool trade.
What is Erasmus' famous epithet for Thomas More?
A Man for all hours (omnium horarun homo)
When was the Protestant Reformation? What instigated in?
1517; Martin Luther published his Ninety-Five Theses attacking the practice of the selling of Indulgences.
What University were both Martin Luther and Hamlet affiliated with?
What was the Renaissance?
Spanning the 14th-17th centuries, this cultural movement celebrated the rebirth of classical Greek and Roman culture. This classical resurgence was manifested in literature, art, politics, science, and architecture.
To what philosophical school did Thomas More and Erasmus belong?
What is Humanism?
Commitment to the "Humane Letters" (Liberal arts) - Latin, Greek, rhetoric, literature, and history.
What is a Novus Homo?
A "new man"; a term applied to More and others of humble(ish) birth who rise to prominence because of intellectual ability and training.
This kind of Secular advancement became particularly common in the Renaissance under Henry VII and Henry VIII.
What was the War of the Roses?
1455-1487; a struggle between the House of Lancaster and House of York to establish the line of succession for the English crown. It eventually ended when Henry VII (Tudor/Lancaster) defeated Richard III (York) in 1487.
Of what royal house were both the House of Lancaster and House of York branches of?
What was the emblem of the House of Lancaster?
What was the emblem of the House of York?
What is the central philosophical conflict of Book I of Utopia?
Whether a learned humanist should remain independent or enter the service of a monarch.
What was Hythloday's stance on the argument in Book I?
That scholars should remain independent; such service would compromise basic principles and put one's soul in jeopardy; people in power are irrational and do not listen to reason.
What was Thomas More's stance on the argument in Book I?
That scholars should serve monarchs; one has a public duty to engage, and *some* good may be accomplished, even if a perfect solution is not reached. The public good is more important than individual freedom.
Who is the founder of Utopia?
Who did More replace as Lord Chancellor?
What did the Act of Supremacy do?
Make Henry VIII the head of the Church
What Act made Henry VIII the head of the Church?
The Act of Supremacy
What does the name "Hythloday" roughly translate to?
Speaker of nonsense
What does Utopia mean?
What is the main goal all of Utopia's policies are working towards?
The elimination of Pride - what More saw as the root of many social evils.
What is the Utopian hierarchy of pleasures?
1. Mental pleasure (esp. virtue)
2. Good health (eating, drinking)
3. Bodily pleasure (scratching an itch, sex)
Who is the Renaissance translator of Utopia?
Ralph Robinson; pub. 1551
What anecdote does Hythloday share to prove his point?
He tells of a dinner at Cardinal John Morton's where he argues that death is too harsh of a punishment for theft. He proposes that instead of punishing those who steal, England should provide a better way for those people to earn a living.
He critiques feudalism, and the standing army, among other things, during the course of his argument - the gist of which is that society should not punish thieves it is responsible for making.
Who is the Cardinal that features centrally in Hythloday's argument about thievery?
Cardinal John Morton
How does Hytholoday propose thieves should be punished?
By putting them to use "for the public good"
Who are the Polylerites?
A fictional people Hythloday cites in his argument with the lawyer at the Cardinal's dinner. Instead of putting people to death, they force them into servitude.
Greek root: "nonsensical people"
How is Hythloday's argument received by other at the Cardinal's table?
They ridicule his ideas until the Cardinal himself states that they may be worth considering - and then everyone switches sides to agree with the Cardinal.
Which fictional people, neighbors to the Utopians, have a Greek name which means "those who live in a place that does not exist"?
Who are the Achorians?
A fictional people Hythloday uses to as an example of good governance: the Achorian king relinquishes a newly-conquered territory after realizing he cannot govern both it and his original kingdom well.
Which fictional people have a name that means "happy people"? What point does Hythloday use them to prove?
They have a law that states that the king may only have 1,000 pounds in his treasury, so that he is always serving the people and not himself.
Who were the people Utopus conquered to found his society?
How many cities are in Utopia?
54 (same number as in England and Wales at that time)
What is the name of the capital city? Where is it located?
Amaurote; in the center of Utopia
Who governs over groups of 30 families?
A Philarch (or syphogrant)
How many hours a day do Utopians work?
What natural resource does Utopia lack?
What English city is a parallel for Amaurote?
How old must a woman be to get married in Utopia? A man?
Who do the Utopians most often hire as mercenaries?
They are modeled after the notorious Swiss mercenaries in More's time. Greek : "those who will sell anything".