Flashcards in Tom Jones Deck (226):
Who wrote Tom Jones?
On who is the character of Sophia Western based?
Fielding's deceased wife, Charlotte Cradock
When was Tom Jones published?
How many copies of Tom Jones were sold during the first year after its publication?
What were some of Fielding's other occupations besides novelist?
Playwright, Lawyer, Journalist, (Successful) Magistrate
What are two other Fielding's famous works that both satirize Pamela by Samuel Richardson?
Shamela and Joseph Andrews
When did Henry Fielding live?
To whom is the book dedicated?
George Lyttleton (against his wishes)
What is the historical backdrop against which Tom Jones takes place?
The Jacobite uprising of 1745
What was the Jacobite uprising?
The failed attempt by Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie") to regain the English Throne for the House of Stuart. Most of the action took place in the Scottish Highlands.
Who is Tom's guardian, and "the favorite of nature and fortune"?
What is the name of Squire Allworthy's sister?
Who is Bridget Allworthy's servant, and the one tasked with discovering Tom's mother?
Who is originally believed to be Tom Jones's mother? Why?
Jenny Jones; she had been a servant to Mr. and Mrs. Partridge, but was dismissed by Mrs. Partridge in a fit of jealously. Jenny confesses to being Tom's mother, but refuses to reveal the name of his father.
Who is originally assumed to be Tom's father?
What is Jenny's particular talent?
She is a bright scholar; as good, if not better, than her fellow male pupils.
How does Bridget end up married?
A friend of Squire Allworthy's, Dr. Blifil, falls in love with her, but is already married (it is suggested he loves her because of her fortune). He arranges for his brother, Captain Blifil to marry her instead, and is then distraught when his brother refuses to have anything to do with him.
Why is Mr. Partridge cast out of the community?
He is accused of beating his wife and father Tom Jones...neither of which he actually did.
Who are the two men hired to teach Tom Jones and Master Blifil? What are they like?
Square: a philosopher who believes vice is an aberration from nature
Thwackum: a reverend who believes mankind is naturally corrupt and must be redeemed by grace.
The two are constantly opposed to each other, and both are often critical of Tom Jones. As time goes on, Square comes to be more on Tom's side, while Thwackum remains his enemy to the end.
Who is Tom's particular friend among the servants, and who he gets into the most trouble with?
Black George (George Seagrim)
Who is Tom first in love with?
Who is the heroine of Tom Jones?
Sophia Western, the daughter of Squire Allworthy's neighbor Squire Western
What is the name of the soldier that attacks Tom in an inn and causes a head injury?
With whom does Sophia go to stay when she flees to London?
Lady Bellaston, who falls for Tom herself and tries to keep him and Sophia apart
What is the name of the landlady with whom Tom and Mr. Partridge take up residence in London?
Who is a fellow tenant of Mrs. Miller's?
Who is Mr. Anderson?
Mr. Anderson, needing money for his family, makes a botched attempt to rob Tom and Mr. Partridge on the road. Tom's benevolence in dealing with him later earns him the gratitude and respect of Mrs. Miller.
What is the name of the Allworthy's lawyer, and what are his main functions in the narrative?
Mr. Dowling. He knows, and keeps, Bridget Allworthy's secret. He works with Blifil to try and frame Tom Jones for murder, but thinks he's doing everything with the knowledge of Squire Allworthy.
What is the name of Sophia's servant?
Under what name does Jenny Jones turn up later in the narrative?
What is the name of Mrs. Miller's daughter?
From what literary form did Fielding believe the novel descended?
What is the significance of Tom Jones's 18 books?
It is broken into 3 equal parts: 6 beginning books, 6 middle books, and 6 ending books. These reflect the proportions recommended by Aristotle.
How many "books" comprise Tom Jones?
To what famous dramatic scene does Fielding's intricate plot often draw comparisons?
The "screen scene" in Sheridan's School for Scandal, produced just a few years after Tom Jones was published.
In the opening chapter, what does the narrator claim this novel is concerned with?
In the opening chapter, what metaphor does the narrator use for explaining how one might approach reading the book?
Consuming a feast
Who is the mother of Tom Jones?
How does Tom Jones come to stay at the Allworthy's?
He finds the baby in his own bed after returning from a long London business trip
Who is the first person Allworthy alerts to the presence of the baby?
Mrs. Deborah Wilkins
Why do her neighbors dislike Jenny Jones?
They think she has become proud from all of the schooling she has received.
What is Bridget's reaction to the baby?
Though she has harsh words for the baby's absent mothers, she takes care of the baby and seems fond of him.
What is Squire Allworthy's reaction to Jenny's confession?
He is impressed with her honesty and loyalty in refusing to reveal the father's name. He lectures her on the sin of pre-marital sex and pledges to help set her up somewhere else so she can start a new life without the taint of rumor.
What reaction does Squire Allworthy's kindness to Jenny provoke in the townspeople?
They begin to suspect that he is the baby's father, but the rumors don't cause him any trouble (and are probably there to plant the idea in the reader's mind)
Is Captain Blifil attractive?
What is it called when the narrator addresses the reader directly?
What does Fielding call the short descriptions that appear at the top of each chapter?
How long after Captain Blifil and Bridget get married does Bridget have a baby?
8 months; this is perhaps a tongue-in-cheek clue to her earlier conduct
Why doesn't Captain Blifil like Tom?
He wants his own son to inherit the entirety of the Allworthy estate.
What leads Mrs. Wilkins to think that Mr. Partridge is Tom Jones's father?
There has recently been a public scandal in which Mrs. Partridge flies off the handle and beats Mr. Partridge (after she hears the rumor that Jenny Jones has given birth to a bastard). Mrs. Partridge claims Mr. Partridge beat her - even though it was she that did all the beating.
Why is Jenny Jones unable to help clear Partridge's name?
When Allworthy sends for her, he finds out she has run off with an army officer.
What is Bridget and Captain Blifil's marriage like?
They fight all the time
What happens to Captain Blifil?
He loves to go on long walks by himself and daydream about Allworthy's money. While off doing this one time, he has a stroke and dies.
Who is Tom Jones named after?
Squire Allworthy, whose first name is "Thomas"
What is Allworthy's greatest flaw?
He is unable to detect cunning and deceit in others
Compare the young Tom and Master Blifil.
Tom gets into a lot of trouble, while Blifil is seemingly well-behaved. Tom gets caught stealing and poaching, frequently out of good intentions, and gets in trouble. Blifil's wrongdoings are more insidious, such as telling on Tom, insulting Tom behind others' backs, or "innocently" leading him into trouble.
What disciplinary technique is Thwackum known for?
Beating his pupils (mainly Tom)
What particular misdeed of young Tom's gets special attention in Book 3?
Tom and Black George were shooting partridges on a Squire Western's neighboring land (forbidden). Tom gets caught, and severely beaten, but refuses to give up Black George's name.
How does Master Blifil manage to stay on the good side of both his teachers?
He just agrees with whichever one is currently instructing him, and stays silent in the presence of both.
What does Allworthy give Tom in reward for his loyalty and forthrightness in the partridge affair? What happens to it?
He gives him a little horse, which Tom soon sells at a fair. He gives the money to Black George (living in poverty since Allworthy sacked him). All this inspires more admiration in the eyes of Allworthy.
What paintings by William Hogarth are frequently cited by the narrator in the first third of the book?
Who painted the picture series "Harlot's Progress"?
Why doesn't Fielding introduce Sophia at the end of Book III?
Since she is so virtuous, and so lovely, and so important to the book, he doesn't want to stick her in at the end like she doesn't matter.
How does Sophia get a pet bird? What happens to it?
Tom catches it for her when they are children, and makes it tame. Sophia loves it dearly, but when given the chance to hold it, Blifil sets it free. Tom tries to rescue it, but to no avail.
What is a squire's occupation?
Why does Tom ignore Sophia's obvious interest in him?
Because he is involved with Black George's daughter, Molly Seagrim.
What event, prompted by Sophia's donation of an old dress to the Seagrim family, is told in a classical, Virgilian style?
A fight between Molly and the other local women after the mock her for dressing so highly above her station at church.
What suggestion of Mr. Square's makes Squire Allworthy truly begin to doubt Tom for the first time?
That all of his kindness to Black George's family was in order to seduce his daughter.
What event both shows off Tom's gallantry and marks the beginning of him returning Sophia's love?
She is thrown from a horse while riding. Tom catches her, but breaks his arm.
What object (and pun) stands central to Tom and Sophia's burgeoning love?
What does Tom find when he goes to the Seagrims' to confront Molly?
That she has been having an affair with Square
Who is the father of Molly Seagrim's child?
Probably a local boy, Will Barnes; since Molly was sleeping with Will and Tom at the same time, it could be either of them.
What befalls Squire Allworthy while Tom is staying at Squire Western's and recovering his health/falling in love with Sophia?
He falls seriously ill (though not as near to death as the doctor tells his family)
What news do the Allworthy's receive while Squire Allworthy is sick in bed?
That Bridget has died
What news does Blifil conceal from the others after he learns of his mother's death?
That Tom is her son, and his half-brother
Why does Blifil want to tell Squire Allworthy about his sister's death right away?
He is hoping the shock will finish Allworthy off for good, and Blifil will get everything.
In his joy at Squire Allworthy's recovery, what does Tom foolishly do?
He gets really drunk at dinner, which leads to an argument with Blifil. Eventually tensions bubble over into a serious physical fight between Thwackum, Blifil, Tom, and Squire Western.
What does Sophia's aunt, Mrs. Western, think is the matter with Sophia?
She correctly guesses that Sophia is in love, but believes her to be in love with Bilfil, setting off a whole disastrous chain of events.
Before the misunderstanding is rectified, Squire Wester, Squire Allworthy, Bilfil, and Mrs. Western all think Bilfil and Sophia will get married.
How does Squire Western react to learning that his daughter loves Tom?
He is furious and accuses Squire Allworthy of devising a plot to get his fortune.
How does Squire Western learn of Sophia's affection for Tom?
Mrs. Western tells him, having learned it from Sophia earlier that day
What does Bilfil do after it is revealed that it is Tom Sophia loves, not him?
He misrepresents the events of Book 5, casting Tom as rejoicing while the Squire was on his deathbed.
How does Tom react when Allworthy asks if Blifil's story about attacking him and Thwackum is true?
Tom has so much respect for Allworthy that he confesses everything. Even though Blifil misrepresented what happened, Tom is still ashamed of what he did.
How much money does Allworthy send Tom away with? What happens to it?
500 pounds; Tom thinks he loses it, but really it is stolen by Black George
What does Allworthy decide to do after Tom's confession about his fight with Blifil?
He decides that he has been too lenient with him, and that he must send him away, and never wants to see him again.
Where does Tom get the 16 pounds he has to survive on after his banishment?
It is sent to him from Sophia via Black George (who kindly decides not to pocket it like he does Tom's missing 500 pounds)
How do Squire Western and Mrs. Western each want to get Sophia to do what they want?
Squire Western is violent, threatening, rash, and aggressive. Mrs. Western, while no more sympathetic to her niece's feelings, thinks things should be handled more diplomatically. This will become a point of contention in the novel.
What are the narrator's four tenets on Love?
1. Some men (especially the philosophers he's mocking) might be entirely without it.
2. Lust is commonly confused with Love (we might think again of the book being a "menu", just as lust is an appetite)
3. Love is also an appetite that seeks to satisfy itself - just more delicately than Lust.
4. When loves is geared towards someone of the opposite sex, it is almost always combined with lust.
What does Tom first decide to do upon resolving to leave the area forever? Where does he go to do it?
He resolves to become a sailor and go to sea; thus, he starts towards Bristol.
What was Squire Western's marriage like?
It was an arranged marriage. He hated his wife, though he didn't hit at her and only swore at her occasionally. He is jealous of how much Sophia loved her.
Does Blifil love Sophia?
No, but he lusts after her. In fact, he kind of hates her, but marrying her would be a victory over her and Tom (plus he'll get a bunch of money).
What is Sophia's plan to avoid marrying Blifil?
To run away to London to stay with a woman she knows there, bringing Honour with her.
Who is Broadbrim the Quaker?
A man Tom meets his first night staying in an inn. He is a father whose daughter has married against his wishes, making him very unhappy.
How does Tom win the favor of the troop of soldiers he meets at the first inn he stays at?
He offers to pay their whole drinking tab after it looks like a fight will break out.
Where are the soldiers marching to?
To fight under the Duke of Cumberland against the Jacobite rebels.
During what year does Tom Jones take place?
Who does Tom support in the Jacobite uprising?
King George II
What provokes the altercation between Tom and Northerton? What does Norterton do in the fight?
Tom makes a toast to Sophia, and Norterton says he's heard she's slept with half the men in Bath.
He throws a bottle at Tom, which knocks him out and starts heavy bleeding. He is taken into custody for this.
What narrative form takes over in the second third of the novel?
What tone does the first third of the book largely take?
Name two Shakespeare references that appear in Book VII.
1. Sophia threatens to stab herself in the heart (Romeo and Juliet)
2. Tom appears like a bloody ghost when seeking revenge on Northerton (Banquo from Macbeth)
Although Fielding makes allusions throughout the entirety of his work, these are particularly notable because of his intro chapter about the traditional comparison between the world and the stage.
What are Fielding's three rules for novel writing introduced in Book VIII?
1. Nothing supernatural should occur
2. Probability of events (shouldn't raise any eyebrows in your reader)
3. Probability of individual action (characters shouldn't do anything...out of character)
Even within the limits of these three rules, you can still find ways to surprise your reader.
What is the name of the barber who comes to tend to Tom while he's in bed with his head injury?
What is Little Benjamin's true identity?
What is Mr. Partridge's secret motivation for traveling with Tom?
He thinks that Tom has run away, not been disinherited, so that if he can return Tom to Partridge, he'll receive a great reward.
Who does Mr. Partridge support in the Jacobite uprising?
Towards what denomination does Fielding express a prejudice against in Tom Jones?
With whom do Partridge and Tom find shelter after many hours of walking in the cold night?
The Man of the Hill
Who does Partridge think is Tom's father?
How does Tom win the Man of the Hill's favor?
He saves him from attackers
What does the narrator consider the highest subject for the poet or for the historian?
Man (hence, no supernatural stuff)
What verbal tic clues the reader into Little Benjamin's true identity before it is revealed in the narrative?
His propensity to (badly) quote Latin
Who does Tom unexpectedly run into at the Whitefield's inn?
Dowling, the lawyer
What earlier discourse by the narrator does Tom and Partridge's conversation on their cold night walk recall?
As they're walking, Tom thinks of the beauty of the night and how much he loves Sophia - the cold doesn't bother him. Partridge, on the other hand, is deaf to Tom's sighs of love and thinks only of "roast beef." He, then, may very well be the type of person who doesn't feel or understand love (and instead thinks of Roast Beef) that the narrator discusses at the beginning of Book 6.
Is Partridge superstitious?
Yes; it comes up time and time again in the text, and seems in direct reference to the narrator's assertion that nothing supernatural will occur in his text. Partridge is foolish, and perhaps also not a very good reader.
How does Tom save the Man of the Hill from his attackers?
He grabs a broadsword off the wall and attacks without asking questions.
Give a summary of the Man of the Hill's story of his life.
He works hard to make his way to Oxford, but while there falls in with a bad crowd, breaking his father's house. He eventually steals some money and absconds to London, where he escapes prosecution but develops a serious gambling habit. After meeting, and not initially recognizing, his father in the street, the Man reforms his ways and goes back home. He eventually decides to live a life of seclusion.
What is the name of the Man of the Hill's friend who first gets him into gambling, and later begs for his financial assistance?
What precursor to the Jacobite rising in 1745 was the Man of the Hill involved in during his youth?
He was part of an earlier plot against the Jacobite King (James II) in the 1680s, while James currently held the throne. It was because of this involvement that Watson informed on him to the authorities. The Man of the Hill had to hide out until King James was driven out of England.
What does the Man of the Hill do with the money he receives from his brother?
Travel the world; it's why his house is so full of interesting things.
On what point to Tom and the Man of the Hill disagree?
The Man of the Hill has had such a bad experience with people that he decides to hide himself away in isolation. Tom argues that it is better to be among people, and make generalizations from the best of men, rather than the worst.
What guiding principle does the narrator draw between using drugs and the supernatural?
That both need to be used with great vigilance.
How does the narrator distinguish his epic from Classical epics?
His epic is "marvelous" while classical epics are "incredible" (supernatural)
What is the name of the shrewish wife of Socrates to whom both Fielding and Sheridan make reference in their works?
What are the three features the narrator says you need to be a good historian?
1. Genius (invention and judgement)
3. A Good Heart
Who does Tom encounter about to attack/rape Mrs. Waters?
To what feature of Mrs. Waters is Tom drawn?
What is "The Battle of Upton"?
When Tom arrives at the Upton inn with the half-dressed Mrs. Waters, the landlady assumes that they she is a prostitute and wants to kick them out. A physical brawl ensues, with Partridge getting into a particularly heated fight with Susan, the chamber maid.
What is the final straw in Mrs. Waters' "full artillery" of seduction that leads Jones to have sex with her?
She drops her handkerchief from her neck; Tom's lust and bad judgement are again in play.
What is an innovative feature of Tom Jones's structure?
The introductory essays Fielding writes at the beginning of each Book.
How does the narrator refer to critics in the opening of Book X?
As "little reptiles"
Who catches Tom and Mrs. Waters in bed together?
Mr. Fitzpatrick, who is looking for his wife
How does Sophia find out about Tom and Mrs. Waters?
A combination of Patridge and Susan not holding their tongues when they ought?
What does Sophia leave behind when she leaves Upton, certain that Tom no longer cares for her (or has at least acted so badly he doesn't deserve her love)?
The muff, of course
What offense can Sophia not forgive after she hears a garbled version of events at the inn in Upton?
Tom misusing her name; she doesn't mind hearing that he slept with a woman, but the disrespect she cannot forgive.
Who accompanies Squire Allworthy on his search for Sophia?
How does Sophia track Tom to Upton Inn in Glouchester?
She, by chance, meets with Tom's original guide, and from there is able to follow the trail of Partridge's wagging tongue.
What relation does Mr. Fitzpatrick have to Squire Western?
He is married to Western's niece, who has run away from her husband.
What is bathos?
In a work of literature, an effect of anticlimax created by an unintentional lapse in mood from the sublime to the trivial or ridiculous; use frequently by Fielding.
What is the origin of the word "critic"?
Who do Sophia and Mrs. Honour meet as they flee Upton for London?
Mrs. Fitzpatrick, who is none other than Sophia's cousin Harriet
What were Harriet and Sophia's youthful nicknames for each other?
Harriet: Miss Giddy
Sophia: Miss Graveairs
Who is Sophia mistaken for at the inn where she stays with her cousin Harriet?
Jenny Cameron, the Jacobite and lover of Bonnie Prince Charlie
Who was Harriet's rival in securing Mr. Fitzpatrick's attentions?
Mrs. Western herself (who is also Harriet's aunt) - he just wanted to marry into the family for their money.
What are Mr. Fitzpatrick, Squire Western, and Mr. Partridge all jealous of in their wives (or, in Partridge's case, Jenny)?
What are some things that, according to the narrator, critics should not do?
- condemn a work they have not read
- condemn a work in its entirety that is only bad in a few parts
- condemn a work without giving specific and credible reasons why
What is a primary pastime of Harriet's while kept in isolation by her husband in Ireland?
Reading - she reads Pope, Dryden, Plutarch, Locke, and many others
What is the first name of both Sophia and Harriet's maids?
Abigail; more confusion between people who have similar jobs. (Later it seems this is just an alias Honour picks up)
How does Sophia lose her pocketbook?
It falls out of her pocket when she falls off her horse
How does Tom come into possession of Sophia's pocketbook?
He buys it from a beggar, who found it on the ground, for 1 guinea
What distracts Squire Western from tracking down his daughter after he leaves the inn at Upton?
He and Parson Supple come across a hunt in which Western is eager to take part. At the Parson's urging, the gentleman whose hunt Western joins convinces Western to give up his search and go home.
Who escorts Sophia and Harriet on the last leg of their journey to London?
The Irish nobleman who helped Harriet escape from her husband (he is also her lover)
What gets the puppet troop kicked out of the inn?
One of the clowns, Merry Andrews, was sleeping with a serving maid.
Who does Tom meet on the road once he's almost to London? What do they discuss?
Dowling, again; they talk about Blifil's black designs against Tom
What side-tracks Tom and Partridge once the are almost to London?
They meet a band of gypsies who are celebrating a wedding, and they join in. Partridge is almost tricked, but the situation is diffused by the Gypsy king, a just ruler.
What episode closes Book XII?
A man attempts to rob Tom and Partridge. Tom overpowers him, and shows him mercy - the man has a wife and five children to feed. Partridge thinks Tom is a fool for giving the man a little money and sending him on his way.
When Tom tracks down Mrs. Fitzpatrick's lodging, why doesn't she tell him where Sophia is?
Sophia didn't mention Tom in her story, so Mrs. Fitzpatrick thinks he might be Bilfil
What two new muses does the narrator invoke at the beginning of Book 13 to guide his book's fortune?
Muse of Fortune, Muse of Gold; it is a parody of the invocations to the muses that begin epics.
Why doesn't Mrs. Fitzpatrick want Sophia to pursue a relationship with Tom?
She is worried about her cousin making a "poor" match, like she did
Whose help does Mrs. Fitzpatrick enlist in deciding what to do about Tom asking to see Sophia?
How many daughters does Mrs. Miller have? What are their names and ages?
Nancy, 17; Betty/Betsy (10)
How does Tom make Nightingale's acquaintance?
He intervenes in a fight between Nightingale and a footman that Nightingale believes insulted Nancy
Who sends Tom a black cape and a masquerade mask?
"The Queen of the Fairies"; ie, Lady Bellaston
What does Tom do with the 50 pounds Lady Bellaston gives him?
He offers it to Mrs. Miller to give to her destitute sister and her family, even though it's all the money he has in the world. She accepts 10 guineas of it.
What is the area of England Tom is from called?
Why does Lady Bellaston keep avoiding the topic of Sophia?
She has fallen for Tom and likes having sex with him - which he does to keep from alienating his one link to Sophia - so she plots to keep Tom's presence in London a complete secret from Sophia.
Who does the husband of Mrs. Miller's poor cousin turn out to be?
The man who tried to rob Tom in the road - Mr. Anderson.
Why can't Lady Bellaston and Tom meet in their usual meeting place? What does she do to ensure he can come to her house instead?
The woman Lady Bellaston rents the house she uses for these "meetings" has decided she doesn't condone that behavior. Lady Bellaston sends Sophia to a play so that Tom can come to her house instead.
What is the effect of Sophia coming home early from the play?
She runs into Tom, who is finally able to give her back her pocketbook and convince her that he never spoke against her. When Lady Bellaston catches them together, all three pretend they've never met before.
What is a consequence of Lady Bellaston bursting into Tom's rooms?
Mrs. Miller says she can't have disreputable things going on in her house, since she has two young daughters. Since Tom insists that he should be able to see who he chooses, they agree he'll have to find another place to live.
How does Mrs. Miller find out about Mr. Anderson's attempted robbery and Tom's connection to Squire Allworthy?
Partridge's big mouth, of course
Why doesn't Nightingale think he can pursue a relationship with Nancy?
His father has already arranged for him to marry someone else
Why does Nancy try to commit suicide?
Because Nightingale is leaving - and she is pregnant with his child.
What does Tom do to try and resolve the issue of Nightingale and Nancy?
He goes to speak with Nightingale's father and uncle.
What plan do Tom and Nightingale conceive that they hope will convince Nightingale's father to accept the match? Does it work?
To tell Nightingale Sr. that Nightingale and Nancy are already married. It does until Nightingale's uncle discovers that it isn't true.
What form does the novel at least partly adopt in Book 14 and beyond?
Epistolary; there are many, many letters that are used as plot points and convey information
What is the name of the nobleman who has fallen in love with Sophia, and pursues her with Lady Bellaston's encouragement?
What relation is Lady Bellaston to Sophia?
What does Lady Bellaston suggest Lord Fellamar do to secure Sophia's hand? What thwarts his plot?
She suggests he rape her. He is only stopped by Sophia's father bursting in at the last minute. Though Squire Western is in a rage and treats his daughter poorly, at least she is saved from Fellamar.
Of what society is Lady Bellaston a member? What do they do?
the "Little World" society; they tell lies that are supposedly harmless, but Lady Bellaston intends this one to be otherwise.
What lie does the Little World society spread about Tom?
That he has been killed
Who revealed Sophia's location to her father?
Mrs. Fitzpatrick told Mrs. Western, trying to get back in her good favor, and Mrs. Western tells Squire Western
Why is Nightingale able to avoid his uncle's wrath and marry Nancy?
Because his uncle's daughter has run away with a man - he is too distracted to bother with Nightingale.
How does Nightingale suggest Tom free himself from Lady Bellaston?
By proposing marriage to her.
Why do Jones and Nightingale have to leave Mrs. Miller's, even after Nightingale is married to Nancy?
Squire Allworthy and Blifil are coming to town. As part of the agreement for the money he provides her, he has stipulated that he must be allowed to stay in her house each time he is in London.
What is Lady Bellaston's reaction to Tom proposing marriage?
She essentially calls in a gold digger
From whom does Tom receive an unexpected marriage proposal?
Mrs. Arabella Hunt, a widow and friend of Mrs. Miller
Why isn't Mrs. Honour able to pass messages from Tom to Sophia anymore? Who will carry his letters instead?
She has been taken up in the employ of Lady Bellaston. It turns out Black George has come to town with Squire Allworthy - and he is willing to pass messages.
What play is Sophia reading when Lord Fallamar attempts to rape her?
The Fatal Marriage by Thomas Southerne (This was a real play, published in 1694. Fielding's literary references aren't just classical and Shakespearean!)
What does Sophia promise her father?
That she will never marry without his consent - but also that she will never marry at his command.
What Play do Tom, Partridge, and Mrs. Miller go to see? What commentary does Partridge make on it?
Hamlet; Partridge thinks the King is the best actor because you can tell he's acting - the others are too realistic (in other words, he likes the worst actor the best).
How does Black George get a letter to Sophia?
By hiding it in her pullet (chicken; her favorite meal)
Does Mrs. Fitzpatrick's betrayal of Sophia work to reestablish her relationship with her aunt?
What is Squire Allworth's opinion on a marriage between Bilfil and Sophia now that Sophia has run away?
He disapproves; he doesn't think anyone should be forced into marriage. Bilfil has convinced his uncle that he really loves Sophia, and only means to try and earnestly persuade her to marry him, which is why he's allowed Blifil to come to London at all.
What plot does Lord Fellamar contrive to try and win Sophia's hand, after applying to Squire Western doesn't work?
He hires Captain Egglane to contrive a method for Tom to be press-ganged into sailor service. Lady Bellaston suggests this plan to him.
Who shows Sophia Tom's letter of proposal to Lady Bellaston?
Who does Tom duel in the street? What happens afterwards?
Mr. Fitzpatrick. Tom doesn't want to fight, but is forced to it, and wounds Mr. Fitzpatrick badly. Immediately after, he is apprehended by the men Fellamar hired and dragged off/arrested. Word spread that Mr. Fitzpatrick is dead.
Why does Lady Bellaston show Mrs. Western her letter of proposal from Tom?
To try and end Tom's relationship with Sophia once and for all, and promote Lord Fellamar's suite with her niece.
What is interesting about the fact that the narrator claims that his prefaces have been assigned in a random order?
The plot itself is strictly dependent upon time, down to the minutest details.
Which three people visit Tom in prison, and what does each of them do for Tom?
Mrs. Miller, Nightingale, and Partridge.
Mrs. Miller promises to speak to Sophia on Tom's behalf, and bring her a letter from him.
Nightingale pledges to investigate the men that attacked Tom.
Partridge brings the news that Fitzpatrick is not dead (doctors were exaggerating...again).
What finally gets Mrs. Western to stop pressuring Sophia as hard to marry Lord Fellamar (though she doesn't entirely give it up)?
Sophia shows her aunt the injuries from where he tried to rape her.
What explanation does the letter that Mrs. Miller carries to Sophia contain?
What actually happened between him and Lady Bellaston
What do the witnesses of Tom's fight with Mr. Fitzpatrick claim?
That they saw Tom provoke the fight
Why does Mrs. Waters visit Tom in prison?
After the incidents at the Upton in, she and Mr. Fitzpatrick fell in together and ended up "married." She knows he is not in danger of dying, and also tells Tom that Fitzpatrick confessed to starting the duel.
Who tries hard to redeem Allworthy's opinion of Tom?
Mrs. Miller. After all he has done for her, she won't hear a word against him. She tells Allworthy everything he has done, and continually implores the squire to see what a good man Tom really is (and what a bad man Bilfil is).
Who has Bilfil hired as his steward?
In Book 18, to what does the narrator compare the relationship between book and its reader, and the time the spend together?
Travelers who have journey together by coach for an extended period of time.
What letter does Allworthy receive in Book 18 that makes him cry?
A letter from Square, who on his deathbed confesses that Tom was the only one truly concerned for Allworthy during his illness. He basically backs up Mrs. Miller's testimony.
Who does Partridge see on his way into the prison to visit Tom?
Mrs. Waters, who is indeed Jenny Jones. Partridge gives Tom the bad news that he has slept with his mother. A letter from Mrs. Waters seems to confirm it.
Why does Allworthy go visit Nightingale's father? What does he discover while there?
He hopes to mend the rift in the families. Allworthy discovers that Nightingale Sr. is in possession of the same bank bills which he originally gave to Tom when he cast him out. The bills were brought to Nightingale by Black George, who is investing them.
What news clears Tom's name?
First, Fitzpatrick awakens and admits he started the duel. Second, Nightingale discovers that the witnesses were paid of to lie about what they saw.
When Nightingale discovers that it was Mr. Dowling who took the witnesses false testimonies, what excuse does Bilfil have?
That he was trying to see if he could make things look better for Tom. Allworthy accepts this lie.
Who finally reveals Tom's true parentage?
Jenny Jones/Mrs. Waters
Who was Tom's father?
Mr. Summer, a clergyman's son who stayed with Allworthy years ago and died of smallpox soon afterwards.
Why did Jenny Jones confess to being Tom's mother?
Bridget paid her well to take the blame and put the baby in Allworthy's bed.
What piece of damning evidence does Jenny Jones ultimately reveal about Dowling?
That she was approach by Dowling and offered payment to lie and say Tom started the duel.
What revelations are made with Allworthy interviews Dowling?
That Blifil hired him to pay off witnesses and try and pay off Fitzpatrick. He also admits to knowing Tom's true parentage, which was revealed to him by Bridget before her death. He gave a letter revealing all to Blifil, who was supposed to tell Allworthy and Tom...but never did. He acted thinking it was Allworthy who wanted him to do these things.
Why is Allworthy surprised to see that Partridge is Tom's "servant"?
Because he still thinks Partridge is Tom's father. Partridge denies, again, that this is so.
Who is the first person Allworthy visits after he learns the truth about Tom's parentage and trial?
Sophia; he has read a letter from Tom to Sophia and is convinced of his love. He wants to clear Tom's name with her.
Even after Tom's name is cleared and her father's permission granted, why doesn't Sophia want to marry Tom? What changes her mind?
All of this confusion has convinced her he is a libertine. When they meet in person, she is convinced of his love.
What is Tom's reaction when Allworthy informs him of Black George's theft of the banknotes?
He is benevolent, admitting that it would have been hard for a poor man to resist such temptation
Who does Mrs. Waters marry?
What happens to Blifil?
Tom convinces Allworthy to give him an allowance of 200 pounds a year.
What happens to Partridge?
He sets up a school, and is engaged to Molly Seagrim.
Does Nightingale Sr. finally accept the marriage of his son and Nancy?
Yes; he and his brother get into a kind of competition to see who can be more accepting of their children's chosen marriages.
Who arrange for Tom's freedom?
Lord Fellamar and Mrs. Fitzpatrick's Irish nobleman