Flashcards in Additional Pathology Deck (27):
what is respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn a result of?
what type of babies are more likely to get respiratory distress syndrome?
what is the name of the condition where your lungs collapse and don't inflate properly?
what is a pneumothorax?
air within the pleural space
what is IPPV?
intermittent positive-pressure ventilation
(a mechanical way of ventilation, uses a positive pressure mechanism to open the alveoli)
what is CPAP?
continual positive airway pressue
(a mechanical way of ventilation, uses positive pressure mechanism to open the alveoli)
what is barotrauma?
physical body damage to the tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside the body and the environment.
can be a complication of mechanical ventilation
what is a diaphragmatic hernia in a new born assoiated with?
what 2 major risks are there of IPPV and CPAP?
what type of inheritance is cystic fibrosis?
what mutation occurs in cystic fibrosis?
mutation in the CFTR gene
what is the most common cause of bronchiolitis?
what is croup?
what are the symptoms of croup?
stridor, barking cough
what is the treatment of croup?
oral steroids to reduce inflammaiton
what is stridor?
inspiratory wheeze due to large airway obstruction
what are the main causes of stridor in children?
anaphylaxis/ angioneurotic oedema
other (eg burns)
what are the main causes of stridor in an adult?
goitre (swelling of thyroid gland)
what is normal on the epworth sleepiness scale?
less than 10 out of 24
what causes snoring?
relaxation of the pharyngeal dilator muscles during sleep causing upper airway narrowing, turbulent airflow and vibration of soft palate and tongue base
what is obstructive sleep apnoea?
intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep causing recurrent arousals +/- hypoxaemia
what are the 8 risk factors for sleep apnoea?
1. enlarged tonsils
3. retrognathia (abnormal position of the jaw)
4. acromegaly, hypothyroidism
5. oropharyngeal deformity
6. neurological problems (eg stroke MS etc)
7. drugs (benzodiapines, opiates alcohol)
8. post op period after anaesthesia
what are the 4 main consequences of sleep apnoea in terms of body function?
1. excessive daytime sleepiness
2. personality change
3. cognitive/functional impairment
4. major impact on daytime function
what are the 6 biochemical consequences of sleep apnoea?
2. activated sympathetic system
3. rasied CRP
4. impaired endothelial function
5. impaired glucose tolerance
6. probable increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular events
how do you diagnose obstructive sleep apnoea?
rasied epworth score
overnight sleep study
what is the treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea?
1. remove underlying cause (eg drugs)