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Flashcards in Additional Pathology Deck (27):
1

what is respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn a result of?

surfactant deficiency

2

what type of babies are more likely to get respiratory distress syndrome?

premature babies

3

what is the name of the condition where your lungs collapse and don't inflate properly?

actelasis

4

what is a pneumothorax?

air within the pleural space

5

what is IPPV?

intermittent positive-pressure ventilation
(a mechanical way of ventilation, uses a positive pressure mechanism to open the alveoli)

6

what is CPAP?

continual positive airway pressue
(a mechanical way of ventilation, uses positive pressure mechanism to open the alveoli)

7

what is barotrauma?

physical body damage to the tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside the body and the environment.
can be a complication of mechanical ventilation

8

what is a diaphragmatic hernia in a new born assoiated with?

pulmonary hypoplasia

9

what 2 major risks are there of IPPV and CPAP?

pneumothorax
barotrauma

10

what type of inheritance is cystic fibrosis?

autosomal recessive

11

what mutation occurs in cystic fibrosis?

mutation in the CFTR gene

12

what is the most common cause of bronchiolitis?

RSV

13

what is croup?

viral laryngotracheobronchitis

14

what are the symptoms of croup?

stridor, barking cough

15

what is the treatment of croup?

oral steroids to reduce inflammaiton

16

what is stridor?

inspiratory wheeze due to large airway obstruction

17

what are the main causes of stridor in children?

infections
foreign body
anaphylaxis/ angioneurotic oedema
other (eg burns)

18

what are the main causes of stridor in an adult?

neoplasms
anaphylaxis
goitre (swelling of thyroid gland)
trauma

19

what is normal on the epworth sleepiness scale?

less than 10 out of 24

20

what causes snoring?

relaxation of the pharyngeal dilator muscles during sleep causing upper airway narrowing, turbulent airflow and vibration of soft palate and tongue base

21

what is obstructive sleep apnoea?

intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep causing recurrent arousals +/- hypoxaemia

22

what are the 8 risk factors for sleep apnoea?

1. enlarged tonsils
2. obesity
3. retrognathia (abnormal position of the jaw)
4. acromegaly, hypothyroidism
5. oropharyngeal deformity
6. neurological problems (eg stroke MS etc)
7. drugs (benzodiapines, opiates alcohol)
8. post op period after anaesthesia

23

what are the 4 main consequences of sleep apnoea in terms of body function?

1. excessive daytime sleepiness
2. personality change
3. cognitive/functional impairment
4. major impact on daytime function

24

what are the 6 biochemical consequences of sleep apnoea?

1. hypertension
2. activated sympathetic system
3. rasied CRP
4. impaired endothelial function
5. impaired glucose tolerance
6. probable increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular events

25

how do you diagnose obstructive sleep apnoea?

snoring
rasied epworth score
overnight sleep study
full polysomnography

26

what is the treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea?

1. remove underlying cause (eg drugs)
2. CPAP

27

what does CPAP do?

maintains upper airway patency