Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

Respiratory > Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (71)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is it called when biologically active molecules are released from tumour cells and mimic the effects of naturally occuring hormones?

paraneoplastic syndromes

2

compare incidence and prevalence of lung cancer?

incidence is high
prevalence is low (because patients dont live for long)

3

as the tumour enlarges what happens to the lung?

loses volume and gets smaller
(in CXR, smallest lung is likely to be the diseased one)

4

is stridor an inspiratroy or expiratroy sound?

inspiratory sounds

5

what 6 structures can a lung tumour locally invade into?

recurrent laryngeal nerve
pericardium
oesophagus
brachial plexus
pleural caivty
superior vena cava

6

why might a patient with a lung cancer get a hoarse voice?

tumour invaded into reccurent laryngeeal nerve

7

what can tumour invasion into the pericardium cause?

breathlessness
AF
pericardial effusion

8

what can tumour invasion into the oesphagus cause?

dysphagia

9

what is a pancoasts tumour?

a tumour of the lung apex

10

why can a patient with a lung cancer present with weakness in upper limbs?

invasion of brachial plexus

11

what often happens when a primary tumour invades the pleural space?

generates a large volume of pleural fluid
(can enhance SOB)

12

when a tumour has invaded bone (causing bone erosion) when will the patient complain the pain is worse?

pain worse at night

13

where are common sites of metastases from a primary lung cancer?

liver
brain
bone
adrenals
skin
lung

14

what 4 symptoms can be caused by brain metastases?

weakness
visual distrubances
headaches
fits

15

why can a headache occur in brain mets?

due to raised intracranial pressure
(usually worse in the morning)

16

what hormone does a tumour mimic to cause hypercalcaemia?

parathyroid hormone

17

what can hypercalcaemia cause?

headaches
confusion
thirst
constipation

18

what hormone does a tumour mimic to cause hyponatraemia (abnormally low Na levels)?

ADH

19

what is the name of a syndrome which mimics myaesthenia gravis? (and is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by an underlying -usually small cell- lung carcinoma)

Eaton Lambert syndromeq

20

what can be some important symptoms of lung cancer? (name 7)

haemoptysis
weight loss
recurrent pneumonia
stridor
hoarse voice
breathlessness
cough

21

why must any patient with new finger clubbing have a CXR?

because lung cancer is the commonest cause

22

what paraneoplastic condition affects the bones? (not due to metastatic disease)

hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

23

why is there pain and tenderness of the long bones in hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

due to elevation of the periosteum away from the bbones surface

24

what is thrombophlebitis?

a blood clot in the vein

25

why is thrombophlebitis a paraneoplastic syndrome?

because of the increased coaguability of blood in cancer patients

26

what diagnostic investigation should be carried out if there is a possibility of lung cancer?

CXR
+ CT (regardless of CXR results)
+/- PET scan
+ bronchoscopy (if patient has a central lesion and is fit enough, if patient isn't fit enough- sputum cytology)
+/- percutaneous FNA biopsy

27

what does a PET scan allow you o see?

tissues with high metabolic activity

28

what are the 2 broad types of lung neoplasms?

benign (rare)
malignant (very common)

29

what are 6 risk factors for lung cancer?

smoking
asbestor
chromates
radiation
atmospheric pollution
genetics

30

what local effect of a lung cancer causes pneumonia?

obstruction of airways