Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (71)
what is it called when biologically active molecules are released from tumour cells and mimic the effects of naturally occuring hormones?
compare incidence and prevalence of lung cancer?
incidence is high
prevalence is low (because patients dont live for long)
as the tumour enlarges what happens to the lung?
loses volume and gets smaller
(in CXR, smallest lung is likely to be the diseased one)
is stridor an inspiratroy or expiratroy sound?
what 6 structures can a lung tumour locally invade into?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
superior vena cava
why might a patient with a lung cancer get a hoarse voice?
tumour invaded into reccurent laryngeeal nerve
what can tumour invasion into the pericardium cause?
what can tumour invasion into the oesphagus cause?
what is a pancoasts tumour?
a tumour of the lung apex
why can a patient with a lung cancer present with weakness in upper limbs?
invasion of brachial plexus
what often happens when a primary tumour invades the pleural space?
generates a large volume of pleural fluid
(can enhance SOB)
when a tumour has invaded bone (causing bone erosion) when will the patient complain the pain is worse?
pain worse at night
where are common sites of metastases from a primary lung cancer?
what 4 symptoms can be caused by brain metastases?
why can a headache occur in brain mets?
due to raised intracranial pressure
(usually worse in the morning)
what hormone does a tumour mimic to cause hypercalcaemia?
what can hypercalcaemia cause?
what hormone does a tumour mimic to cause hyponatraemia (abnormally low Na levels)?
what is the name of a syndrome which mimics myaesthenia gravis? (and is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by an underlying -usually small cell- lung carcinoma)
Eaton Lambert syndromeq
what can be some important symptoms of lung cancer? (name 7)
why must any patient with new finger clubbing have a CXR?
because lung cancer is the commonest cause
what paraneoplastic condition affects the bones? (not due to metastatic disease)
hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
why is there pain and tenderness of the long bones in hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
due to elevation of the periosteum away from the bbones surface
what is thrombophlebitis?
a blood clot in the vein
why is thrombophlebitis a paraneoplastic syndrome?
because of the increased coaguability of blood in cancer patients
what diagnostic investigation should be carried out if there is a possibility of lung cancer?
+ CT (regardless of CXR results)
+/- PET scan
+ bronchoscopy (if patient has a central lesion and is fit enough, if patient isn't fit enough- sputum cytology)
+/- percutaneous FNA biopsy
what does a PET scan allow you o see?
tissues with high metabolic activity
what are the 2 broad types of lung neoplasms?
malignant (very common)
what are 6 risk factors for lung cancer?