Flashcards in Respiratory Infections Deck (122)
where does corzya, pharyngitis, sinusitis and epiglottitis effect?
upper respiratory tract
where does acute bronchitis, pneumonia and influenzae effect?
lower respiratory tract
where is the cut off between upper and lower respiratory tract?
(vocal cords and above = upper
below vocal cords = lower)
what is corzya?
acute viral infection of the nasal passages
what is acute sinusitis usually preceded by?
what type of discharge is associated with acute sinusitis?
purulent nasal discharge
what is the reason diptheria is so life-threatening?
the toxin produced
why is diptheria not seen in the UK anymore?
what is the reason epiglottits (in children) is so life-threatening?
risk of respiratory obstruction
what is acute bronchitis usually preceded by?
what are the clinical features of acute bronchitis?
productive cough (rememeber bronchitis is an over production of mucus)
sometimes a fever
possibly a transient wheeze
normal chest examin
what is the treatment for acute bronchitis?
antibiotics are not indicated unless patient has underlying chronic lung disease
what is an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis?
worsening of sputum production (now purulent) of a patient with pre-existing lung disease
what usually precedes an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis?
upper respiratroy tract infection
what are the clinical features of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis?
ankle oedema (in advanced disease- cor pulmonale)
what is the management of an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis? (patient has purulent sputum)
amoxicillin or doxycycline
short steroid course in some cases
(refer if evidence of resp failure or not coping at home)
give oxygen if resp failure
what are the main investigations for a patient who has suspected pneumonia? (7)
why can herpes simplex be reactivated in patients with pneumonia?
why is CRB65 more useful in primary care than CURB 65?
don't need to do a blood test
who tends to get severe chicken pox pneumonia?
what is the management of CAP?
oxygen (maintain SaO2 94-98%)
what can radiological technique can you use to help guide a chest drain?
what type of antibiotic cover is generally needed for hospital acquired pneumonia?
gram negative cover
what type of antibiotic cover is generally needed for aspiration pnumonia?
why is pneumonia caused by legionella tricky to diagnose?
chest symptoms may be absent but GI disturbance is common
who gets both influenza and pneumococcal vaccines?
people over 65
patients with chronic chest/cardiac disease
patients with diabetes
what are the benefits of oseltamivir?
reduced duration of symptoms by one day
reduced use of antibiotics
might reduce infectivity
no data on mortality
how long is the first wave of an influenza pandemic?
when does the second wave of an influenza pandemic occur?
months after the first