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Flashcards in Respiratory Infections Deck (122)
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1

where does corzya, pharyngitis, sinusitis and epiglottitis effect?

upper respiratory tract

2

where does acute bronchitis, pneumonia and influenzae effect?

lower respiratory tract

3

where is the cut off between upper and lower respiratory tract?

vocal cord
(vocal cords and above = upper
below vocal cords = lower)

4

what is corzya?

acute viral infection of the nasal passages

5

what is acute sinusitis usually preceded by?

corzya

6

what type of discharge is associated with acute sinusitis?

purulent nasal discharge

7

what is the reason diptheria is so life-threatening?

the toxin produced

8

why is diptheria not seen in the UK anymore?

vaccination

9

what is the reason epiglottits (in children) is so life-threatening?

risk of respiratory obstruction

10

what is acute bronchitis usually preceded by?

corzya

11

what are the clinical features of acute bronchitis?

productive cough (rememeber bronchitis is an over production of mucus)
sometimes a fever
possibly a transient wheeze
normal chest examin
normal CXR

12

what is the treatment for acute bronchitis?

supportive
antibiotics are not indicated unless patient has underlying chronic lung disease

13

what is an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis?

worsening of sputum production (now purulent) of a patient with pre-existing lung disease

14

what usually precedes an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis?

upper respiratroy tract infection

15

what are the clinical features of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis?

breathlessness
wheeze
crackles
cyanosed
ankle oedema (in advanced disease- cor pulmonale)

16

what is the management of an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis? (patient has purulent sputum)

primary care:
amoxicillin or doxycycline
bronchodilator inhalers
short steroid course in some cases

hospital:
(refer if evidence of resp failure or not coping at home)
measure ABGs
give oxygen if resp failure
CXR

17

what are the main investigations for a patient who has suspected pneumonia? (7)

blood culture
serology
ABGs
FBC
Urea
LFTs
CXR

18

why can herpes simplex be reactivated in patients with pneumonia?

opportunistic infection

19

why is CRB65 more useful in primary care than CURB 65?

don't need to do a blood test

20

who tends to get severe chicken pox pneumonia?

adult smokers

21

what is the management of CAP?

antibiotics
oxygen (maintain SaO2 94-98%)
fluids
bed rest
no smoking

22

what can radiological technique can you use to help guide a chest drain?

ultrasound

23

what type of antibiotic cover is generally needed for hospital acquired pneumonia?

gram negative cover

24

what type of antibiotic cover is generally needed for aspiration pnumonia?

anaerobic cover

25

why is pneumonia caused by legionella tricky to diagnose?

chest symptoms may be absent but GI disturbance is common

26

who gets both influenza and pneumococcal vaccines?

people over 65
patients with chronic chest/cardiac disease
patients with diabetes
immunocompromised patients

27

what are the benefits of oseltamivir?

reduced duration of symptoms by one day
reduced use of antibiotics
might reduce infectivity
no data on mortality

28

how long is the first wave of an influenza pandemic?

3-5 months

29

when does the second wave of an influenza pandemic occur?

months after the first

30

explain CURB65

C = new onset of confusion
U = urea >7
R = resp rate > 30/min
B = BP, systolic
65 = age 65+