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Respiratory > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (109):
1

What is the order of the respiratory tree?

Trachea
Main Bronchi
Lobar Bronchi
Segmental Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli

2

What are the parts of the pharynx?

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

3

What level of the vertebra does the larynx become the trachea?

C6

4

What level of the vertebra does the pharynx become the oesophagus?

C6

5

From superficial to deep, name the parts of the chest wall?
(the soma)

Skin
Superficial Fascia
Deep Fascia
Skeletal Muscle
Bone/joints
Parietal pleura

6

What fluid does the pleura secrete?

Pleural fluid

7

What is the function of the pleural fluid?

Lubrication
Provides surface tension

8

Name the lobes and fissures of the right lung?

Lobes: superior, middle, inferior
Fissures: horizontal and oblique

9

Name the lobes and fissures of the left lung?

Lobes: superior, inferior
Fissures: oblique

10

How many bronchopulmonary segments does each lung have?

10

11

The sternal angle is at the level of what rib?

Rib 2
T4/5

12

What are the spaces between each rib called?

intercostal spaces

13

Describe the 12 thoracic ribs.

1-7: True ribs
8-10: False ribs
11+12: Floating ribs

14

What is the name of the combined lower costal cartilages?

costal margin

15

The ribs articulate with the sternum via what?

the rib's costal cartiglage

16

What is the name of the joints that join the rib to the vertebra?

Costovertebral joints

17

What is the name of the joints that join the rib to costal cartilage?

Costochondral joints

18

What is hte name of the joints that join the sternum to the costal cartilage?

Sternocostal joints
(synovial)

19

What are the 3 layers of skeletal muscles located between the ribs?

external intercostal muscle
internal intercostal muscle
innermost intercostal muscl

20

what are the muscles of passive breathing?

diaphragm
intercostal muscles

21

What is the blood supply of the anterior parts of the intercostal spaces?

Internal thoracic artery and veins
(run parasternally)

22

What is the blood supply of the 11 pairs of intercostal spaces?
(ie chest wall?)

bilateral posterior intercostal arteries

23

What is the arterial blood supply for the lungs?

bronchial arteries

24

where do the bronchial arteries arise from?

thoracic aortas anterior surface

25

There are 2 domes of the diaphragm. Which dome is more superior?

the right dome due to the presence of the liver inferiorly

26

What type of muscle is the diaphragm?
(skeletal or smooth)

skeletal muscle

27

What is the muscular part of the diaphragm's nerve supply?

phrenic nerve
(combined C3,4,5 anterior rami)

28

What is the route of the phrenic nerve?

-Anterior surface of the scalenus anterior
-Lateral aspects of the fibrous pericardium

29

During inspiration, how does the diaphragm move?

Contracts and descends thus increasing the vertical chest cavity dimension

30

During inspiration how do the intercostal muscles move?

Contract, elevating the ribs and pulling the ribs laterally and anteriorly thus increasing AP and lateral chest caivty dimensions

31

What 2 things cause the lungs to be pulled outwards with the chest wall?

1. surface tension created by the pleural fluid
2. the potential vacuum in the pleural cavity

32

During expiration how does the diaphragm move?

relaxes and ascends thus decreasing the vertical chest cavity dimension

33

During expiration how do the intercostal muscles move?

relax and return ribs to the resting position thus decreasing the AP and lateral chest cavity dimensions.

34

The elastic tissue within the lungs allow what?

elastic recoil of the lungs during inspiration and expiration

35

From superficial to deep, name the tissue of the breast.

Superficial fascia
Pectoralis fascia
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
RIbs/Intercostal muscle
Parietal Pleura

36

Lateral quadrants of the breast drain to which nodes?

Unilateral drainage to axillary nodes

37

Medical quadrants of the breast drain to which nodes?

Bilateral drainage to parasternal nodes

38

Name the two heads of the pectoralis major.

Clavicular head
Sternocostal head

39

The two heads of the pectoralis major attach laterally to where?

The lateral side of the intertubercular groove of the humerous

40

What is the muscle that anchors the medial border of the scapula to ribs 1 to 8?

Serratus anterior

41

What nerve supplies the serratus anterior?

The long thoracic nerve
(a nerve from the brachial plexus)

42

Within the costal groove what is the order of the neurovascular bundle?
(superficial to deep)

VAN
vein, artery, nerve

43

What is located between the diaphragmatic parietal pleura and the costal parietal pleura?

Costodiaphragmatic recess

44

The horizontal fissure of the right lung follows which rib?

Right rib 4

45

The oblique fissures run from which rib to which vertebra?
(anterior to posterior)

rib 6 anteriorly to T3 posteriorly

46

Why do we cough?

To protect and clear our respiratory tract

47

Sensory receptors in the mucosa of the respiratory tree are stimulated by what 4 things?

1. inflammatory mediators
2. irritant chemicals
3. a build up of mucus
4. certain drugs

48

in an up right patient, which lobe are foreign bodies most likely to be inhaled?

inferior lobe of the right lung

49

What is the name of the internal aspect of tracheal bifurcation?

Carina

50

What 2 ways can air enter the pleural cavity?

1. penetrating injury to the parietal pleura
2. rupture of the visceral pleura

51

how big must the gap between lung and parietal pleura be to be called a 'large' pneumothorax?

2cm

52

What would you find on percussion of a pnemothorax?

hyper-resonance

53

What would find on bilateral expansion of the chest of a pneumothorax?

reduced ipsilateral expansion

54

What would you find on auscultation of a pneumothorax?

reduced breath sounds

55

What might a tension pneumothorax cause?

tracheal deviation, SVC compression (leading to hypotension)

56

What 2 methods are used for managing a large pneumothorax managed?
(non-emergency)

1. needle aspiration (thoracentesis)
2. chest drain via 4/5 intercostal space in the midaxillary line)

57

What are the borders of the safe triangle?

-the anterior border of the latissimus dorsi
-the posterior border of the pectoralis major
-the axial line superior to the nipple

58

How do you manage an emergency tension pneumothorax?

large gauge cannula into the 2/3 intercostal space, midclavicular line

59

2 factors required for the development of the hernia?

1. weakness (usuallly of the body wall)
2. increased pressure on one side of the wall

60

What is it called when the herniated part of the stomach passes through the oesophageal hiatus and becomes PARALLEL to the oesophagus?

paraoesophageal hiatus hernia

61

What is it called when the herniated of stomach slides through the oesophageal hiatus WITH the gastrooesophageal junction?

sliding hiatus hernia

62

What is the weakness that is a factor for inguinal hernias?

the inguinal canal

63

What are possible causes for the increased intra-abdominal pressure leading to an inguinal hernia?

chronic cough, chronic constipation, lifting of heavy weights, athletic effort

64

What do the inguinal ligaments attach between?

ASIS and the pubic tubercle

65

What is the inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis?

inguinal ligaments

66

What is the passageway through the anterior abdominal wall in the inguinal regions called?

inguinal canal

67

Where is the deep ring of the inguinal canal?

superior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament

68

Where is the superficial ring?

in the external oblique aponeurosis, superolateral to the pubic tubercle

69

what does the spermatic cord contain?

vas deferens, testicular artery and the pampiniform venous plexus

70

where do the round ligaments of the uterus pass through?

the inguinal canals into the labium majus

71

What is a direct inguinal hernia?

Herniation through the anterior abdominal wall via the inguinal triangle
(medial to the inferior epigastric artery and vein)

72

What is an indirect hernia?

herniation through the inguinal canal via the deep ring (lateral to the inferior epigastic artery and vein)

73

what does adduction of the vocal cords cause?

closes the rima glottidis

74

what nerve stimulated the adduction and abdution of the vocal cords?

vagus nerve (CN X)

75

What does abduction of the vocal cords cause?

opens the rima glottidis

76

What nerve causes the soft palate to tense?

Trigeminal (CN V)

77

what nerve causes the soft palate to elevate?

Vagus (X)

78

What nerve supplies the sensory receptors of the oropharynx involved in coughing?

Glossopharyngeal (IX)

79

What nerves supplies the sensory receptors of the oropharynx, larynpharynx and larynx involved in sneezing?

Trigeminal (V) and Glosopharyngeal (Ix)

80

What does the carotid sheath contain?

The vagus nerve, internal carotid artery, common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein.

81

What nerve supplies the sensory receptors of the laryngopharynx and the larynx involved in coughing?

The vagus nerve (X)

82

what are the 4 sets of accessory muscles of deep inspiration?

pectoralis major
pectoralis minor
sternocleiodmastoid
scalenus (anterior, medius and posterior)

83

what type of muscle are the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
(smooth or skeletal)

skeletal muscle

84

the intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by which nerve?

Vagus nerve (CN x)

85

which foramen in the base of the skull does the vagus nerve pass through?

jugular foramen
(then descends through carotid sheath)

86

Do the vagus nerves descend anterior or posterior to the lung root?

posterior

87

what are the 3 anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?

external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominus

88

the aponeurosis's of the anterolateral abdominal muscle blend at what midline structure?

linea alba

89

what is the name of where the anterolateral abdominal muscle fibres end and the aponeurosis begins?

the linea semilunaris

90

the external intercostal and external obliques run in which direction?

inferomedially (as if hands go in pockets)

91

the internal intercostal and internal obliques run in which direction?

superomedially

92

the external obliques attach inferiorly where?

anterior part of the iliac crest and the pubic tubercle

93

the external obliques attach superiorly where?

superficial aspects of the lower ribs

94

the internal obliques attach inferiorly where?

the iliac crest and the thoracolumbar fascia of the lower back

95

the internal obliques attach superiorly where?

inferior border of the lower ribs

96

the transversus abdominus muscle fibres run in what direction?

transversely

97

the transversus abdominus attaches superiorly where?

deep aspects of the lower ribs

98

the transversus abdominus attaches inferiorly where?

the iliac crest and the thoracolumbar fascia of the lower back

99

the rectus sheath is composed of what?

the aponeuroses of the external oblique, internal obliqe, transvesus abdominus

100

what divides the rectus abdominus? (ie to form a 6 pack)

tendinous intersections

101

from what vertebra do the thoracoabdominal nerves that originate as intercostal nerves leave?

T7 to T11

102

the thoracoabdominal nerves run in a plane between what muscles?

internal oblique and transversus abdominus

103

what vertebra does the subcostal nerve (a thoracoabdominal nerve) leave from?

T12 anterior ramus

104

what vertebra does the iliohypogastric nerve (a thoracoabdominal nerve) leave from?

half of L1 anterior ramus

105

What type of nerves do the thoracoabdominal nerves contain?

somatic motor, somatic sensory and sympathetic nerve fibres

106

What vertebra does the ilioinguinal nerve (a thoracoabdominal nerve) leave?

half of L1 anterior ramus

107

tonic contractions of the abdominal muscles do what?

maintain posture and support the vertebral column

108

What do guarding contractions of abdominal muscles do?

protect the abdominal viscera

109

what do contractions of the abdominal muscles do?

cause movement of the vertebral column. increase intra-abdominal pressure (coughin, defecation micturation, labour)