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Flashcards in Restrictive Lung Disease Deck (74)
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1

what is the main pathology behind restrictive lung disease?

alveolar barrier to O2 exchange

2

describe PaO2 and PaCO2 in restrictive lung disease?

low PaO2
normal PaCO2

3

what are the 2 types of pulmonary oedema?

cardiac pulmonary oedema
non cardiac pulmonary oedema

4

why does cardiac pulmonary oedema occur?

due to raised pulmonary pressure in the veins due to back pressure from the heart

5

why does non cardiac pulmonary oedema occur?

leaky pulmonary capillaries (can be caused by sepsis or trauma- ARDS)

6

what are the 3 major causes of consolidation of the alveolar air spaces?

infective pneuonia
infarction
others

7

what 2 types of infarction can occur in the lung and thus cause consolidation of the alveolar air?

pulmonary embolism
vasculitis

8

what is the name of the non-infectious type of pneumonia which causes alveolar air space consolidation?

cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

9

what disease is associated with cryptogenic organising pneumonia?

rheumatoid disease

10

what anti-arrhythmic medication is associated with cryptogenic organising pneumonia?

amiodarone

11

what type of hypersensitivity reaction is extrinsic allergic alveolitis?

type 3: immune-complex mediated
(hypersensitivity pneumonitis)

12

what type of hypersensitivity reaction is sarcoidosis?

type 4:delayed hypersensitivity

13

what 5 important signs can be caused by sarcoidosis?

1. lymphadenopathy
2. erythema nodosum
3. uveitis
4. myocarditis
5. neuropathy

14

what are the 2 causes of fibrosing alveolitis?

rheumatoid associations
cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

15

what 6 important diseases cause an inflammatory infiltrate of the alveoler walls (alveolitis) and so cause restrictive disease?

1. extrinsic allergic alveolitis
2. sarcoidosis
3. drug induced alveolitis
4. pneumoconiosis
5. fibrosing alveolitis
6. autoimmune alveolitis (eg SLE)

16

what is pneumoconiosis?

dust-disease

17

what two types of pneumoconiosis is there?

fibrogenic
non fibrogenic

18

what are the 2 important types of fibrogenic pneumoconiosis?

asbestosis
silicosis

19

what are 3 important types of non-fibrogenic pneumoconiosis?

siderosis (iron)
stanosis (tin)
baritosis (barium)

20

what are the 6 important features of the clinical syndrome of restrictive lung disease?

1. breathless on exertion
2. cough (with no wheeze)
3. finger clubbing
4. inspiratroy lung crackles
5. central cyanosis
6. pulmonary fibrosis (late stage)

21

why does pulmonary fibrosis occur in late stage restrictive disease?

as a response to the chronic inflammation

22

what are 4 key questions you must ask to find out the cause of restrictive disease?

occupation?
medications?
pets?
arthritis?

23

in restrictive disease, what is the DLCO?

reduced

24

in restrictive disease what is the PEFR like?

normal

25

in restrictive disease what is FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC like?

reduced FEV1
reduced FVC
normal ratio

26

in sarcoidosis, what 3 findings would you expect when testing serum?

raised ACE
raised Ca
increased inflammatory markers

27

why do you use an echocardiogram in diagnosing restrictive lung disease?

to rule out LVF

28

how do you treat restrictive lung disease?

1. remove trigger (eg dust, drug, allergen)
2. treat any inflammation with immunosupressives
3. give oxygen if hypoxaemia
4. lung trasplant

29

what is the 1st line treatment for restrictive lung disease?

systemic corticosteroids
eg oral prednisolone

30

what is the 2nd line treatment for restrictive lung disease?

oral azathioprine (a steroid sparing, immunosuppressive)