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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (89)
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1

what is the clinical presentation of influenza?

fever: high, abrupt onset
malaise
myalgia
headache
cough (initially dry, painless- becomes productive and painful)
prostration (extreme physical weakness)

2

what are the 2 important types of classical flu?

influenza A
influenza B

3

what is haemophilus influenzae?

a Gram-negative, aerobic, small bacilli

4

how is influenza transmitted?

droplets or direct contact with infected respiratroy secretions

5

what are the 5 major complications of influenza?

1. primary influenza pneumonia
2. secondary bacterial pneumonia
3. bronchitis
4. otitis media
5. pregnancy complications

6

what is otitis media?

infection of the middle ear

7

what type of complications can occur if patient gets influenza during pregenancy?

perinatal mortality
prematurity
smaller neonatal size lower birth weigh

8

what is the treatment of flu?

bed rest
fluids
paracetamol

9

when should antivirals be given in the treatment of flu?

only when patient iss at risk of complications

10

what is an antigenic drift?

minor mutations in the antibody binding sites

11

what is an antigenic shift?

process by which 2 or more different strains of virus combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens

12

what types of influenzae can go through antigenic drift?

influenza A
influenza B

13

what types of influenzae can go through antienic shift?

influenza A only

14

what type of mutations to the influenzae virus cause epidemics?

antigenic drifts
(influeza A or B)

15

what type of mutations to the influenzae virus cause pandemics?

antigenis shift
segmented genome
animal reservoi/mixing vessel
(influenza A only)

16

what is the name of the H1N1 sub type of influenzae A?

swine flu

17

what is the best way for direct detection of the influenza virus?

PCR using nasopharyngeal/throat swabs or other respiratory samples

18

what is an indirect way to detect the influenza virus?

antibody detection

19

what 2 types of vaccines used for the prevention of flu?

killed vaccine
live attenuated vaccine

20

who is the killed influenza vaccine given to?

adult patients at risks of complications
health care workers
children 6 months - 2 years at risk of complications
(annually)

21

who is the live attenuated vaccine given to?

offered to
all children 2-5
all primary school children
(because live attenuated vaccine more effective in children 2-17 than killed vaccine)

22

how is the live attenuated vaccine given?

intra-nasally

23

what bacteria are known as 'atypical pneumonia'?

mycoplasma pneumoniae
coxiella burnetti
chlamydophila psittaci/pneumoniae

24

what antibiotics do atypical pneumonia respond to?

tetracycline and macrolides

25

what are the 2 main ways to get lab confirmation ofmycoplasma, coxiella and chlamydophila?

serology
virus detection (PCR on resp swabs/secretions)

26

what 2 disesaes does Coxiella burnetii cause?

pneumonia
pyrexia of unknown origin (Q fever)

27

Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacteria, what does this mean?

an animal infection orginally
(sheep and goats)

28

what is a major complication of Coxiella burnetii?

culture negative endocarditis

29

Chlamydophila psittaci is a zoonotic bacteria, what animal is it caught from?

pet birds
(parrots, budgies, cockatiels)

30

what does Chlamydophila psittaci cause?

Psittacosis