Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (89)
what is the clinical presentation of influenza?
fever: high, abrupt onset
cough (initially dry, painless- becomes productive and painful)
prostration (extreme physical weakness)
what are the 2 important types of classical flu?
what is haemophilus influenzae?
a Gram-negative, aerobic, small bacilli
how is influenza transmitted?
droplets or direct contact with infected respiratroy secretions
what are the 5 major complications of influenza?
1. primary influenza pneumonia
2. secondary bacterial pneumonia
4. otitis media
5. pregnancy complications
what is otitis media?
infection of the middle ear
what type of complications can occur if patient gets influenza during pregenancy?
smaller neonatal size lower birth weigh
what is the treatment of flu?
when should antivirals be given in the treatment of flu?
only when patient iss at risk of complications
what is an antigenic drift?
minor mutations in the antibody binding sites
what is an antigenic shift?
process by which 2 or more different strains of virus combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens
what types of influenzae can go through antigenic drift?
what types of influenzae can go through antienic shift?
influenza A only
what type of mutations to the influenzae virus cause epidemics?
(influeza A or B)
what type of mutations to the influenzae virus cause pandemics?
animal reservoi/mixing vessel
(influenza A only)
what is the name of the H1N1 sub type of influenzae A?
what is the best way for direct detection of the influenza virus?
PCR using nasopharyngeal/throat swabs or other respiratory samples
what is an indirect way to detect the influenza virus?
what 2 types of vaccines used for the prevention of flu?
live attenuated vaccine
who is the killed influenza vaccine given to?
adult patients at risks of complications
health care workers
children 6 months - 2 years at risk of complications
who is the live attenuated vaccine given to?
all children 2-5
all primary school children
(because live attenuated vaccine more effective in children 2-17 than killed vaccine)
how is the live attenuated vaccine given?
what bacteria are known as 'atypical pneumonia'?
what antibiotics do atypical pneumonia respond to?
tetracycline and macrolides
what are the 2 main ways to get lab confirmation ofmycoplasma, coxiella and chlamydophila?
virus detection (PCR on resp swabs/secretions)
what 2 disesaes does Coxiella burnetii cause?
pyrexia of unknown origin (Q fever)
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacteria, what does this mean?
an animal infection orginally
(sheep and goats)
what is a major complication of Coxiella burnetii?
culture negative endocarditis
Chlamydophila psittaci is a zoonotic bacteria, what animal is it caught from?
(parrots, budgies, cockatiels)