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Flashcards in Adrenal Deck (85)
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1

Where are the adrenal glands located?

Superior to the kidneys. Little hats on the kidneys

2

What the two regions of the Adrenal Gland?

1. Cortex
2. Medulla

3

What are the three components of the Cortex?

1. Zona Glomerulosa
2. Zona Fasciculata
3. Zona Reticularis

4

The cortex takes up _____% of the adrenal gland?

80-90%

5

The Medulla takes up ______% of the adrenal gland?

10-20%

6

What molecules/hormones/etc come out of the Adrenal Gland?

1. Aldosterone
2. Cortisol
3. Androgens
4. Catecholamines

7

Aldosterone is a __________.

Mineralocorticoid

8

Cortisol is a __________.

Glucocorticoid

9

The Zona Glomerulosa is the most ______ layer of the cortex.

Superior

10

The Zona Fasciculata is the ______ layer of the cortex.

Middle/Intermediate

11

The Zona Reticularis is the most ______ layer of the cortex.

Inferior

12

The Zona Glomerulosa produces ________.

Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone)

13

The Zona Fasciculata produces _________.

Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)

14

The Zona Reticularis produces __________.

Androgens (Androdtenedione, DHEA, and DHEA-S)

15

The Medulla produces ________.

1. Catecholamines
2. Metanephrines
3. Normetanephrines
4. Vanillylmandelic Acid

16

What are the two most common Catecholamines?

1. Epinepherine
2. Norepinephrine

17

If these products are overproduced, what effect will this have on the patient?

Make them sick!!!

18

Overproduction of Aldosterone will cause what disease/condition?

Hypertension

19

Aldosterone is secreted from the ________ and its site of action is on the ______________________.

Zona glomerulosa of the Adrenal Cortex;
Distal Nephrons of the Kidneys

20

What is the function of Aldosterone?

1. Reabsorb Sodium and Chloride (which means water will follow)
2. Secrete Potassium and Hydrogen
3. Water Homeostasis

21

What initiates the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone?

The system can be activated when there is a loss of blood volume or a drop in blood pressure (such as in hemorrhage or dehydration). This loss of pressure is interpreted by baroreceptors in the carotid sinus. In alternative fashion, a decrease in the filtrate NaCl concentration and/or decreased filtrate flow rate will stimulate the macula densa to signal the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin.

22

Release of cortisol from the ______ is stimulated by _______.

Zona Fasciculata; ACTH

23

Release of Androgens from the ______ is stimulated by _______.

Zona Reticularis; ACTH

24

T/F: The effect of ACTH is slow, taking hours to instigate an effect.

False, it is rapid and occurs within minutes.

25

The release of ACTH occurs _______ during the 24 hour cycle. Sometimes referred to as a ________ Pattern.

Episodically; Circadian

***Note: If ACTH is released episodically, then Androgens and Cortisol are also released episodically.

***Fun Fact: ACTH spikes in the morning. #MorningSex

26

When is ACTH secretion increased?

1. Stress (Trauma, Sx, Anxiety, Emotional Disturbance)
2. Low circulating levels of cortisol

27

When is ACTH inhibited?

1. High circulating levels of cortisol
2. Presence of synthetic glucocorticoids

28

Cortisol can inhibit ACTH secretion at two sites?

1. Hypothalamus (Corticotropin Releasing Factor)
2. Adenohypophysis (Corticotrophin)

29

When patients are taking exogenous Cortisol, this will inhibit the secretion of the endogenous pathway at the two ACTH secretion sites. Because of this, when the patient is being taken OFF of exogenous Cortisol, what should we do?

TAPER the exogenous cortisol off because the body needs to begin slowly making the glucocorticoids on its own again.

30

Physiologic Effects of Glucocorticoids

1. Stimulate Gluconeogenesis
2. Induce insulin resistance
3. Increase release of AA and FA
4. Elevate RBC and platelet levels
5. Maintain normal vascular response to vasoconstrictors
6. Stimulation of PMN leukocytosis
7. Depletion of circulating eosinophils and lymphocytes
8. Decrease macrophage adherence to endothelium