Overview of Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Overview of Endocrine System Deck (54)
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1

A molecule that functions as a message within an organism. It's only function is to convey information. Essentially, a "signal."

Hormone

2

Class of Hormones including Dopamine, Catecholamines, and T3/T4

Amino Acid Derivatives

3

Class of Hormones including GnRH (Gonaotropin-Releasing Hormone), TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone), and ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone, Vasopressin, Arginine Vasopressin).

Neuropeptides

4

What is Endocrinology?

Intracellular Chemical Communication (NOT OBJECTIVE)

5

Functions of Endo?

1. Maintain Internal Homeostasis, 2. Support Cell Growth, 3. Coordinate Development, 4. Coordinate Reproduction, 5. Facilitate Responses to External Stimuli (NOT OBJECTIVE)

6

Cellular Proteins that bind with high affinity to hormones, causing altered shape and function. Limited number of these.

Hormone Receptor (NOT OBJECTIVE)

7

Two types of Hormone Receptors

Membrane and Nuclear (NOT OBJECTIVE)

8

Proteins that convert the information in hormone signals into chemical signals understood by cellular machinery. This occurs when they interact with the protein-hormone complex

Transducers (NOT OBJECTIVE)

9

Two types of feedback

Negative and Positive

10

These maintain hormonal balance and are often linked to homeostatic processes. A signal in the lower section of a hierarchy is sent to a higher section to inhibit action.

Negative Feedback

11

These cause physiologic changes in the system involved. A signal in the lower section of a hierarchy is sent to a higher section to excite an action.

Positive Feedback

12

Class of Hormones including Insulin and Gonadotropins

Proteins

13

Class of Hormones including cortisol and estrogen

Steroids

14

Class of Hormones including retinoids and Vitamin D

Vitamin Derivatives

15

How are hormones stored?

Precursors or Prohormones (preproinsulin, POMC)

16

Three types of cells in the Endocrine System

1. Endocrine Cell
2. Paracrine Cell
3. Autocrine Cell

17

Cell --> Anywhere in body

Endocrine Cell

18

Cell --> Proximal Cell

Paracrine Cell

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Cell --> Itself

Autocrine Cell

20

Hormone --> Cellular Effect --> Physiological Response & Feedback

Homeostatic Principle of Endocrinology

21

Two types of Endocrine Environmental Adaptation

Pulsatile and Circadian Rhythms (Note: Hormones commonly activated by light or sleep)

22

Brain Stem Rule #1

Hormones Obey Newton's 3rd Law

23

Brain Stem Rule #2

Plasma accumulation of ANYTHING reflects balance between rate of formation and rate of removal

24

Brain Stem Rule #3

Most protein hormones have short plasma half lives and some (like ACTH) are very susceptible to ex vivo proteolysis.

25

This is predominantly connected to the hypothalamus by vascular connections

Adenohypophysis or Anterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland

26

This is predominantly connected to the hypothalamus by neural connections

Neurohypophysis or Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland

27

Tea Time, Praise The Lord

TRH --> TSH + PRL --> Thyrotroph and Lactotrophs

28

Function of Thyrotrophs

Metabolism

29

Function of Lactotrophs

Lactation

30

Lovely Lola F*cks George

LHRH --> LH + FSH --> Gonadotrophs