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Flashcards in Lipids Deck (34)
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1

Risk Factors for Hyperlipidemia

Men >45
Women>55
Family history of CHD, HTN
Current smoker
<40 HDL
Hypotension
DM
Known CVD Risk

2

Extremely high levels of chylomicrons or VLDL particles can cause:

Eruptive Xanthomas

3

High levels of LDL can cause:

Tendinous Xanthomas

4

High levels of triglycerides can cause:

Lipemia Retinalis

5

Extremely high levels of chylomicrons or VLDL particles can cause:

Eruptive Xanthomas

6

High levels of HDH can cause:

Tendinous Xanthomas

7

High levels of triglycerides can cause:

Lipemia Retinalis

8

NCEP recommends screening all individuals for high cholesterol beginning at what age?

20

9

T/F: Most individuals have no clinical signs of high cholesterol

True. Usually indicated in blood testing.

10

What values indicate an increase in CHD risk with high cholesterol?

Each 10 mg/dl of total cholesterol increases the risk of CHD by 10%

11

What constitutes a patient as high risk for CAD?

Hx of:
CAD
MI
Stroke
CHD

12

What constitutes a patient as intermediate risk?

2+ Risk Factors

13

What constitutes a patient as low risk?

<2 Risk Factors

14

HDL

Good cholesterol
High Density

15

LDL

Bad Cholesterol
Low Density

16

Treatment for Hyperlipidemia

Diet
Exercise
Weight loss
Smoking cessation
Aspirin therapy
Rx if needed

17

Benefit of HDL

If HDL>60, it subtracts a risk factor.

18

Niacin

Lipid-lowering
Causes flushing due to prostaglandins
Intolerance is common

19

Cholestyramine, Colesevelam, and Colestipol

Bind bile acids
Lowers LDL
GI issues are common

20

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are more commonly referred to as?

Statins

21

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) mechanism

Work by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of cholesterol

22

Gemfibrozil

Fibrate (PPAR-alpha) agonists):
Lowers LDL and HDL
Reduces CHD

23

Ezetimibe

Inhibits cholesterol transporter
Lowers LDL
inhibits cholesterol absorption in the small bowel

24

Side Effects of Statins (HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

Muscle aches
Mild GI issues
Liver toxicity

25

Side Effects of Gemfibrozil

Gall Stones
Hepatitis
Muscle Inflammation

26

Calculating Total Cholesterol

HDL + LDL + VLDL

27

Where are most Triglycerides located?

VLDL

28

The liver is the power house producer of?

Lipoproteins

29

What can cause increases in Triglycerides?

1. Alcohol
2. DM
3. Pregnancy
4. Hypothyroidism (Decreases LPL)
5. Nephrotic Syndrome (decreases TG clearance)

30

What is the best predictor for Cardiovascular Risk?

Apo B