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Flashcards in DM I Deck (37)
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1

When is Type 1 DM typically diagnosed?

Children and Young Adults

2

What happens in Type 1 DM?

The body does not produce insulin

3

What is insulin used for? Why is it important?

Insulin is required in order for the body to properly use sugar (in the form of glucose)

4

Why is sugar important for the body?

Basic fuel for cells

5

What is the role of insulin with sugar?

Takes the sugar from the blood and carries it into the cells where it can be used to provide energy for functionality.

6

What happens when insulin binds to the insulin receptor on the cell membrane?

Unlocks the cell so glucose can pass into it.

7

Blood glucose will _____ after a meal

Rise

8

After a meal, what will your pancreas do to compensate for the rise in blood glucose

Pancreas will release more insulin

9

Blood glucose tends to _____ during the day

Fluctuate

10

Insulin is secreted from the pancreas from what cell?

Beta 1 Cell

11

In an islet smear, what will you see in a patient with DM I that you won't see in normal patients?

Lymphocytic Infiltration

12

Type I DM is commonly an

Autoimmune Disease

13

Over time, what does the pathogenesis of DM I look like?

Interactions between genes imparting susceptibility and resistance. Beta Cells are normal

Variable insulitis B-cell sensitivity and injury occuring

Pre-diabetes (less Beta cells)

Overt Diabetes (80-90% of Beta Cell loss)

14

Untreated DM 1 can cause

1. Muscle Atrophy because there will be NO glucose going to the muscles
2. CVD (Stroke, MI, Loss of circulation)
3. Blindness
4. Kidney Disease
5. Nerve Damage
6. Amputation
7. Diabetic Neuropathy

15

Treatment for DM 1

INSULIN therapy! So glucose can go into the cells

16

What is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Clinical Syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria, HTN, RELENTLESS DECLIN IN GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and a high risk of CV morbidity or mortality.

17

This disease is a common cause of Diabetic Nephropathy

End Stage Renal Disease

18

How common is Diabetic Nephropathy in Diabetics?

20-30%

19

Action on Diabetic Nephropathy should occur before the development of

Albuminuria

20

What is important do monitor in a pt diagnosed with Diabetic Nephropathy?

Blood pressure! Because of the effects on the glomeruli

21

Diabetes can cause what in the eye?

RETINOPATHY
Non-proliferative:
1. Aneurysm
2. Hemorrhages
3. Hard exudates
4. Cotton Wool Spots

Proliferative:
5. Growth of the abnormal blood vessels

22

Visual changes with Diabetic Retinopathy:

Very blurry with spots of no vision (blacked out)

23

Neuropathy can be caused by diabetes in what areas of the body, most commonly?

Feet and HAnds
Heart and Circulation
Stomach, Bladder, and Sex Organs

24

Diabetes is the most common cause of ?

Peripheral neuropathy

25

Peripheral Neuropathy can cause

Foot Ulcers, which can lead to amputation

26

What is peripheral neuropathy?

Feet and Hands lose nerve senses

27

What is autonomic neuropathy?

Loss of nerve sensation in the ANS, such as in the heart or digestion

28

Autonomic Neuropathy can lead to

HRN, HR issues, Bladder Emptying issues, and Digestion issues

29

What is a HbA1C Test?

Test that measures the percentage of HbA1c in your body. Corresponds to an average blood glucose for the previous 3 months

30

What is HbA1C?

Glycosylated Hemoglobin