Adult Nutrition Ch 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Adult Nutrition Ch 16 Deck (33)
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1

Define: carcinogenic diet (7)

-low fat & veg intake
-low level of antioxidants (esp. vita A&C)
-low intake of whole grains & fiber
-high dietary fat intake
-nitrosamines fm burnt & charred foods
-high intakes of pickled & fermented intake
-high animal-food => low plant-food intake

2

Define: atherogenic diet (10)

-high in sat fat (>10% cals)
-trans-fatty acid intake
-dietary cholesterol intake (>300mg)
-low fruit & veg intake
-low antioxidants
-low intake of whole grains
-no or excess alcohol (moderation)
-high sodium intake
-low potassium intake
-low intake of milk & dairy foods

3

Define: obesogenic diet

-caloric intake exceed needs
-unstructured eating
-frequent fast-food consumption
-high fat intake
-sugar-sweetened drink consumption
-energy-dense, low-nutrient food choices

4

Define: menopause

s

5

Define: health disparities

Some populaBon groups have aé prevalence of chronic diseases than others
¤ Some groups have a geneBc disposiBon for certain diseases
¤ GeneBcs & environment interact

6

Define: obesogenic diet (6)

-caloric intake exceed needs
-unstructured eating
-frequent fast-food consumption
-high fat intake
-sugar-sweetened drink consumption
-energy-dense, low-nutrient food choices

7

Define: menopause (4)

Women
- ↓ of estrogen => menopause
-↑ abdominal fat
-↑ risk of CVD
-accelerated loss of bone mass

8

Define: health disparities

-Some population groups have a ↑ prevalence of chronic diseases than others
-Some groups have a genetic disposition for certain diseases
-Genetics & environment interact

9

What are the determinants of health disparities?

Social determinants:
1. physical environment
2. health services
3. social environment
Intrapersonal (indiv) determinants:
1. indiv behavior
2. biology & genetics

10

Describe physiological changes present during adulthood (6)

-Growing stops by the 20’s
-Bone density continues until 30 (vitaD&Ca)
-Muscular strength peaks around 25 to 30
-↓ size and mass of muscle
-↑ in body fat
-Dexterity and flexibility ↓

11

Describe body composition changes present during adulthood

Bone loss begins around age 40
-Risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis depends on peak bone mass
- + energy balance => ↑ weight &
adiposity
- ↓in muscle mass
Fat redistribution: ↑central & intra-abdominal space
-↑subcutaneous fat.
Associated with:

12

Describe hormonal and climacteric changes present during adulthood


¤ Women
§ êof estrogenàmenopause
§ éin abdominal fat
§ éin risk of cardiovascular disease & accelerated loss of bone mass
¤ Men
§ Gradualêin testosterone level & muscle mass

13

what is fat distribution associated w/?

1. Hypertension
2. Insulin resistance
3. Diabetes
4. Stroke
5. Gallbladder disease
6. Coronary artery disease

14

Define: menopause (4)

Women
- ↓ of estrogen => menopause
-↑ abdominal fat
-↑ risk of CVD
-accelerated loss of bone mass

15

Describe body composition changes present during adulthood (4)

Bone loss begins around age 40
-Risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis depends on peak bone mass
- + energy balance => ↑ weight &
adiposity & ↓in muscle mass
Fat redistribution: ↑central & intra-abdominal space & ↑subcutaneous fat.

16

Describe hormonal and climacteric changes present during adulthood (W4; M 2)

Women
- ↓ of estrogen => menopause
-↑ abdominal fat
-↑ risk of CVD
-accelerated loss of bone mass
Men
Gradual ↓ in testosterone level & muscle mass

17

what is fat distribution associated w/?

1. Hypertension
2. Insulin resistance
3. Diabetes
4. Stroke
5. Gallbladder disease
6. Coronary artery disease

18

How do you estimate energy needs in adults? (Mifflin-St Jeor formula) (5)

-Mifflin-St Jeor formula: validated & > accurate than OLD Harris-Benedict eq
-REE: Resting Energy Expenditure
(ht in CM & wt in KG)
-Use wt, ht, & age in eq & by activity factor
-M & F have diff eqs

19

How do you estimate energy needs in adults? (“ballpark” caloric levels)

Simple calc: (cals/lb)
-wt maintanence: 15 cals/lb
-wt loss: 13 cals/lb
-wt gain: 17 cals/lb

=> wt in LBS x 15 / 13 / 17 = cals should eat

20

Define: health disparities (3)

-Some population groups have a ↑ prevalence of chronic diseases than others
-Some groups have a genetic disposition for certain diseases
-Genetics & environment interact

21

What are the determinants of health disparities? (3/2 = 5)

Social determinants:
1. physical environment
2. health services
3. social environment
Intrapersonal (indiv) determinants:
1. indiv behavior
2. biology & genetics

22

what is fat distribution associated w/? (6)

1. Hypertension
2. Insulin resistance
3. Diabetes
4. Stroke
5. Gallbladder disease
6. Coronary artery disease

23

How do you estimate energy needs in adults? (“ballpark” caloric levels) (4)

Simple calc: (cals/lb)
-wt maintanence: 15 cals/lb
-wt loss: 13 cals/lb
-wt gain: 17 cals/lb

=> wt in LBS x 15 / 13 / 17 = cals should eat

24

How to calculate energy adjustment for weight change? (4)

1 lb of body fat = 3500 calories
-To lose 1 lb /week, an adult would need to create a - balance of 500 cal/day
(7 days of - 500 cals for 1 wk = -3500 => 1 lb)
-combo of ↓ intake and ↑ PA/exercise
- + balance of just 100 extra calories per day will result in a gain of 10 lbs in a year

25

How to calculate energy adjustment for weight change? (4)

1 lb of body fat = 3500 calories
-To lose 1 lb /week, an adult would need to create a - balance of 500 cal/day
(7 days of - 500 cals for 1 wk = -3500 => 1 lb)
-combo of ↓ intake and ↑ PA/exercise
- + balance of just 100 extra calories per day will result in a gain of 10 lbs in a year

26

What is the protein recommendation (g/d) for adults?

>19 = 0.80 g/day

27

What is the protein recommendation (g/d) for adults?

>19yo = 0.80 g/day

28

What is the protein recommendation (g/d) for adults?

>19yo = 0.80 g/day

29

What are the % range recommendations for macronutrients intake (AMDR) for adults (>19yo)?

Fat: 20-35%
Carbs: 45-65%
Protein: 10-35%

30

What are the % range recommendations for macronutrients intake (AMDR) for adults (>19yo)?

Fat: 20-35%
Carbs: 45-65%
Protein: 10-35%