Basic Nutrition Ch 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Nutrition Ch 1 Deck (40)
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1

What is food security/insecurity?

FOOD SECURITY: always have access to an adequate supply to safe, nutritious foods
FOOD INSECURITY: limited/uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods
**~14% of US households are food insecure

2

What are empty calories and nutrient-dense foods?

EMPTY CALS: lots of cals (fm solid fats &/or added sugars)/energy, but little/no nutritional value
NUTRIENT-DENSE: foods few cals, but lots of nutrients

3

What are essential nutrients?

nutrients the body does not produce
ESSENTIAL in the diet

4

what are the essential nutrients? (5)

carbs
protein - 9 AAs
fats/lipids: essential fatty acids (linoleic acid & alpha-linolenic acid)
vitas & minerals
water

5

Describe factors that influence nutrients needs (9)

age, body size, gender, genetic traits, growth, illness, lifestyle habits, meds, prego&lactation

6

What are the dietary reference intakes (DRIs)? (3)

general term
for: nutrient intake standards for HEALTHY people
accounts: age, gender, growth, prego&lactation

7

what are the DRIs? (4)

RDA, AI, EAR, and UL

8

what is the RDA? (7)

recommended dietary allowance
enough scientific info
used to assess indivs
levels of essential nutrients
adequate for MOST HEALTHY people
↓ risk of some chronic diseases
est. to meet requirements of 98% of HEALTHY indivs

9

what is the AI? (3)

Adequate intakes
tentative (not certain or fixed) RDAs
Used when not enough or inconclusive scientific info

10

what is the EAR? (4)

ESTIMATED AVERAGE REQUIREMENT
best values to meet requirements of HALF OF HEALTHY INDIVS IN A GROUP
assess adequacy if intakes of POPULATION GROUPS
-are they meeting the requirements?

11

what is the UL? (4)

TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS (UPPPER LIMIT)
upper limits of nutrients compatible w/ health
should NOT EXCEED these limits
does not reflect desired levels of intake
(supplements can aid in toxicity)

12

What are the functions of carbs?
what are the sources of carbs?

primary source of energy (brain & physical activity)

grains(wheat&rice), veg, fruits, legumes (lentils, beans, peas), milk products

13

What is glycemic index (GI)?

extent to which carb-containing foods ↑ blood glucose levels
if high GI: ↑ blood glucose levels ↑
if low GI: improve ✓ blood glucose control in diabetes

14

what are macronutrients & which are macronutrients?

nutrients that provide calories or energy
nutrients needed in large (marco) amounts
protein, fat, and carbs

15

Describe carbs (10)

composed of CHO
simple carbs/sugars:
-monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose
-disaccharides: sucrose, maltose, lactose
complex carbs (polysaccharides)
-starches (plant form)
-glycogen (animal form)
-fiber
alcohol sugars
alcohol (ethanol)

16

What is the % range recommendations for carbs (AMDR)?
AMDR - Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

45-65% of cals
+ed sugar: ≤25% of cals
women: 21-25 g fiber/day
men: 30-38 g fiber/day

17

What are the functions of protein?
what are the sources of protein?

NOT typically a primary energy source
tissue growth, repair, & maintenance

meats, fish, poultry, dairy, seeds, nuts, legumes

18

Describe protein (4)

CHON
AAs: building blocks of protein
-essential (9): body CAN'T make; NEED IN DIET
-nonessential: body CAN make

19

what is high-quality proteins?
what are complementary proteins?

HIGH-QUALITY PROTEIN: provide ALL 9 essential AAs
COMPLEMENTARY PROTEIN: COMBO of proteins that supply ALL 9 AAs to = a complete protein

20

What is the % range recommendations for protein (AMDR)?
AMDR - Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

10-35% of cals

21

What are the functions of fats/lipids? (3)
what are the sources of fats/lipids? (5)

stored energy (adipose tissue-fat)
energy source @ rest & when doing low-intensity exercise
there are lipid-solvable vitas

dietary fats, oils, nuts, seeds, avo

22

Describe fats/lipids (5)

CHO
fats: a subclass of lipids
-fats: solid @ room temp
-oils: liquid @ room temp
insoluble in water

23

What are essential fatty acids?

linoleic acids (omega-6)
alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)
*most adults do NOT consume adequate levels of omega 3 fatty acids

24

What is the % range recommendations for fats/lipids?
(AMDR) - Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

20-35% of cals from fat (limiting unhealthful fats as much as possible)
linoleic acid: 17g/day M vs 12g/day W
alpha-linolenic acid: 1.6g/day M vs 1.1g/day W

25

what is the diff between unsat & sat fats?

SATURATED: no = (double bonds)
UNSATURATED:
-mono (1 =) unsaturated fats
poly (≥2=s) unsaturated fats

26

How are water-soluble vitamins different from fat-soluble vitamins?

WATER-SOLUABLE: NOT STORED in the body, excess excreted in urine
FAT-SOLUBLE: STORED in the body, toxicity can happen from consuming excess amounts

27

what are the fat-soluble vitas?

ADEK

28

what are functions of vitas? (2)

coenzymes & antioxidants

29

what are micronutrients? (2)
which are micronutrients?

nutrients required by the body in small amounts
vital to development, disease prevention, &wellbeing

vitas&minerals

30

What is malnutrition?
How is primary malnutrition different from secondary malnutrition?

Malnutrition can result from poor diets & from diseases, genetic factors, or combos of these causes
PRIMARY: dietary in origin
SECONDARY: cause of a disease state, surgical procedure, or meds