Nutrition & Older Adults Ch 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition & Older Adults Ch 18 Deck (19)
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Key terms: sarcopenia

Term used for loss of LBM associated with aging


Key terms: functional status



Key terms: discretionary calories (3)

A review of NHANES data
Snacks provide nearly 1⁄4 of daily energy intake
Snacks make up
-14% of protein
-12% of alcohol


Describe body composition changes related to aging (5)

1. Normal aging is asso w/ shifts in body composition & subsequent loss of physical resilience
2. LBM
-Sum of fat-free tissues, mineral as bone, & water
3. Sarcopenia
-Term used for loss of LBM asso w/ aging
4. LBM ↓ 2-3% per decade from age 20 to 70
5. Older people - lower mineral, muscle, & water reserves


Discuss problems related to smell & taste

Taste & smell senses ↓ w/ age
-Women retain their sense of smell better than men do

Disease/medications affect taste & smell more than aging

Oral health depends on:
1. GI secretions (saliva)
2. Skeletal systems (teeth & jaw)
3. Muscles (tongue & jaw)
4. Taste buds
5. Olfactory nerves (smell & taste)


Discuss problems related to appetite

1. Hunger & satiety cues
weaken w/ age
2. Older adults may need to be more conscious of food intake levels since appetite- regulating mechanisms may be blunted


Discuss problems related to thirst

1. Thirst-regulating mechanisms ↓ w/ age
2. Dehydration occurs > quickly after fluid deprivation & rehydration is


Describe nutritional risk factors for older adults

1. Consider tot fat, sat fat, fruits, vegetables, whole grains & caloric intake
2. Compare adequacy of nutrient intake to the RDA or DRI
3. Examine a population & determine how environmental factors predict nutritional health—such as the Nutrition Screening Initiative’s (NSI) DETERMINE checklist


Describe protein needs

1. Current recommendation: 0.8 g/kg of body weight
-Research suggests protein needs for older adults are 1 to 1.3 g/kg body wt (higher than the DRI of 0.8 g)
2. Inactive, older adults living alone may have low protein intakes


What is the fluid recommendation for older adults?

1. The total amount of water ↓ w/ age
2. ≥6 glasses of fluid/day will prevent dehydration in most older adults
3. To individualize fluid recommendations, 1 mL of fluid/ kcal consumed, w/ a min of 1500 mL


Describe protein considerations

1. Based on total energy requirements, how much protein will meet individual’s needs?
2. Are enough cals eaten so that protein does not have
to be used for energy?
3. If marginal amounts of protein are eaten, is the protein of high quality?
4. Are there additional needs – wound healing?
5. Is the individual exercising?


Discuss age associated changes related to: vitamin A

1. Plasma levels & liver stores ↑ w/ age
2. May be linked to ↓ clearance from the blood
3. Older adults > vulnerable to toxicity & possible liver damage than deficiency
4. Beta-carotene will not damage the liver


Discuss age associated changes related to: calcium,

1. Need adequate intake for bone health & to reduce
2. UL has been lowered bc of toxic effects


Discuss age associated changes related to: vitamin D

Vitamin D, Calciferol
Factors that put older adults at risk for deficiency:
1. Limited exposure to sunlight
2. Institutionalization or homebound
3. Certain medications (barbiturates, cholestyramine, Dylantin, laxatives)


Discuss age associated changes related to: vitamin B12

1. Despite adequate intake, ~30% of older adults have ↓
serum B12 levels
2. ↓ B12 linked to ↓ levels of HCL & pepsin (from atrophic gastritis) in aged persons resulting in inability to split B12 from protein carriers
3. Synthetic or purified B12 is not protein bound and is much better absorbed


Discuss age associated changes related to: folate

Folate, Folic acid
1. Absorption may be impaired
2. Some medications used can affect folate metabolism
3. Folate deficiency can mask B12 deficiency, which is a > common problem in elderly


Discuss age associated changes related to: iron

1. Iron needs ↓ after menopause
2. Most older adults consume > iron than needed
3. Excess iron contributes to oxidative stress
4. Reasons that some older adults may have iron deficiency include
-Iron loss from disease or medications
- ↓ acid secretion
- ↓ calorie intake


What are the recommendation regarding dietary supplements?

What to Take:
1. Vitamin/mineral balance
2. Safe dose when combined with foods
3. U.S. Pharmacopeia or NF code
4. Safety of product

How Much to Take
1. Physiological doses


What are the recommendation regarding dietary supplements? (food label)

1. In nutrition labeling & dietary guidance, “one size does not fit all”
2. Nutrient amounts for older adults are slightly different than those for younger
3. Main differences:
-Need more Ca & vitamins D & C