Adult Nutrition: Conditions & intervention Ch 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Adult Nutrition: Conditions & intervention Ch 7 Deck (30)
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1

Key terms: insulin resistance

Cells fail to respond to the normal actions of the hormone insulin
The body produces insulin, but the cells in the body become resistant to insulin & cannot use it as effectively
-> high blood sugar.

2

Key terms: atherosclerosis

hardening of arterial walls due to fat accumulation (plaque)

3

Key terms: dyslipidemia

is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood.

↑ LDL cholesterol
↓ HDL cholesterol
↑ triglycerides

4

Key terms: metabolic syndrome

cluster of risk factors ↑ risk of diseases (T2D, heart attack, CVD, etc.)

5

Key terms: hemoglobin A1C

glucose control in the past 3 months (avg)

6

Key terms: carcinogenesis

The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells

7

How do you assess weight status in adults? (5)

-Loss of appetite control may be due to disturbances in hormonal controls of hunger & satiety
-Psychological, socioeconomic, lifestyle, & cultural factors play a role in obesity
-Environmental factors can contribute
--
Body mass index (BMI) – correlated with total body fat
--
BMI measures don’t accurately represent healthy weights of people who are:
1. Athletes with ↑ muscle mass
2. Wit ↓ muscle mass
3. Dense, large bones

8

What other factors should be accounted for? (4)

-Determining the Body Mass Index (BMI)
-Measuring body composition
-Assessing the pattern of fat distribution
-Metabolic health – lipids, inflammatory markers, blood sugar, blood pressure

9

Discuss weight management intervention: Understanding motivation to engage in weight-loss program (Pt 1) (5)

1. Understanding motivation to engage in weight-loss program:
-Reasons & motivation for wt reduction
-Previous wt-loss attempts
-Attitude about and capacity to perform PA
-Time avail for wt loss intervention
-Financial considerations

10

Discuss weight management intervention: Successful weight loss plans (Pt 2) (4)

2. Successful weight loss plans:
-Eating plan that ↓ caloric intake
-Nutritional needs at a safe level
-Incorporates PA
-Compatible w/ individual’s lifestyle

11

Discuss weight management intervention: Goals of weight management (Pt 3) (3)

(Relatively small amounts of weight loss can reduce or prevent health risks associated with obesity)
3. Goals of wt management
-Prevent further wt gain
-Reduce body weight
-Maintain a ↓ body wt for the long term

12

Discuss weight management intervention: Medical Nutrition Therapy (Pt 4) (5)

4. Medical Nutrition Therapy
-Nutrition prescription for wt loss
-Eating plan deficient in calories
-Meets guidelines for healthy eating
-Balanced vitamin/mineral supplements (may be recommended)
-Meal replacements helpful for individuals having trouble with portion control

13

Discuss weight management intervention: Programs are most successful that utilize cognitive behavioral therapy (Pt 5) (3)

5. Programs are most successful that utilize cognitive behavioral therapy
(Programs are 12 to 16 weeks long to:)
-Build knowledge
-Modify beliefs and attitudes
-Integrate new behaviors

14

Discuss weight management intervention: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Weight Management (Pt 6) (2)

6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Weight Management
Programs help clients to:
-Recognize and replace automatic & irrational thoughts & beliefs (Cognitive restructuring)
- ↑ awareness & control of cues associated w/ eating (Stimulus control)

15

Cardiovascular disease: discuss risk factors (6)

1. Dyslipidemia : ↑ LDL cholesterol, ↓ HDL cholesterol, ↑ triglycerides
2. High blood pressure
3. Lifestyle factors (Diet, PA, Smoking)
4. Central obesity
5. Diabetes
6. Infection & inflammation

16

Cardiovascular disease: medical nutrition therapy (4)

Therapeutic Life Changes (TLC)
-Recommended for high risk individuals
-Diet & Lifestyle change is the cornerstone of therapy
-Developed by the 3rd NCEP Expert panel
-Need to consider addition of statins if LDL↑

17

Cardiovascular disease: cardio-protective diet

Total fat intake from 25-35% of cals
-sat fat or = 200 cals/day spent for PA
- ~30 mins of PA/d

18

Diabetes: discuss type 1 vs. type 2

Type 1:
-Minimal or no production of insulin by pancreas
-Daily insulin injections required
Type 2:
-Body’s inability to use insulin
-Most common type

19

Diabetes: complications

a

20

Diabetes: risk factors

Risk factors for diabetes & pre diabetes
-Parent or sibling w/ diabetes
-History of gestaBonal diabetes
-Elevated A1c, IFG, IGT
-Racial or ethnic background
-Sedentary lifestyle
-Hypertension
-Low HDL, High Trig, CVD

21

Diabetes: medical nutrition therapy: Diet flexibility and individualization (Pt 1/3) (5)

Diet flexibility and individualization
-Diet plan
-Calorie level
-Calorie & CHO distribution
-Variety of foods
-Consistent eating pattern

22

Diabetes: clinical goals 2+1

-Normalize blood glucose & glucose metabolism
-Prevent or slow the progression of diabetes complications
-
Treatment focus is to empower the person with diabetes to self-manage

23

Diabetes: medical nutrition therapy: Diet flexibility and individualization (Pt 2/3) (5)

Diet flexibility and individualization
-ADA Exchange Lists
-CHO Counting
-Self-Monitored Blood Glucose
-PA in Diabetes Management
-Pharmacological Therapy for Type 2 diabetes

24

Diabetes: medical nutrition therapy: Diets consist of (Pt 3/3) (6)

Diet should consist of:
-Whole grains & other fibrous foods
-Unsaturated fats
-Regular meals & snacks
-CHO counting
-May also need to add anBhyperglycemic drugs such as Metformin
-Use herbal remedies with caution

25

Cancer: risk factors

Smoking—linked to 30% of cancers
Nutrition-related risks
-Obesity & insulin resistance
- ↑alcohol consumption
-↓intakes of fruits, veggies, & Ca

26

Cancer: nutrition intervention (6)

To minimize nutritional risk:
-Maintain or reach healthy wt
-Base diet on fruit, veg & whole grain
-Limit processed & red meat
-Alcohol in moderation, if at all
-Exercise
Health care professionals provide guidance on diet/food- related side-effects of treatment

27

Cancer: discuss risk factors

Smoking—linked to 30% of cancers
Nutrition-related risks
-Obesity & insulin resistance
- ↑alcohol consumption
-↓intakes of fruits, vegs, & calcium

28

Cancer: nutrition intervention (6)

To minimize nutritional risk:
-Maintain or reach healthy wt
-Base diet on fruit, veg & whole grain
-Limit processed and red meat
-Alcohol in moderation, if at all
-Exercise
Health care professionals provide guidance on diet/food- related side-effects of treatment

29

Discuss nutrition intervention for HIV (Pt 1/2)

-Maintain wt & nutritional status
-Consume adequate protein & other nutrients
-During early phase, adequate nutrient intakes to ↑ immune function & ↓ susceptibility to infection
-Choose Ca-rich foods and vitamin D to prevent progressive bone loss
-Dietary strategies to manage symptoms of drug therapies

30

Discuss nutrition intervention for HIV (Pt 2/2)
Nutritionally adequate diets can

Even the best nutritional advice & self care cannot restore immune function
Nutritionally adequate diets can:
-Help wt maintenance
-Avoid depletion of nutrient stores
-↑ level of control & sense of well-being