Conditions & Interventions in Older Adults Ch 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Conditions & Interventions in Older Adults Ch 19 Deck (20)
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1

Key terms: quality of life,

measure of life satisfaction on factors such as social contacts, economic security, & functional status

Good nutrition can ameliorate effects of illness & contribute to quality of life

2

Key terms: mortality

leading causes of death

3

Key terms: morbidity

leading diagnoses of health conditions

4

Key terms: polypharmacy

Polypharmacy (taking several different drugs each day)
1. ↑ w/ age
2. Asso w/ adverse drug reactions
3. Hospital admissions/ readmissions
4. ↑ mortality

Medications may require dietary restriction & can interfere with appetite, digestion, & metabolism

5

Describe stroke risk factors

Age
Long-term high blood pressure
Family history
African Amer, Asian,
Hispanic
Physical inactivity
Cigarette smoking
Living in poverty

Comorbid conditions
Diabetes mellitus
Carotid artery disease
Atrial fibrillation
Sickle cell anemia
Depression
Transient ischemic attacks

Excessive use of alcohol; Drug abuse

6

Describe stroke clinical goals

The overall goal is to normalize BP

↓ abdominal fat
Moderate alcohol intake
↑ fruit and vegetables

7

Discuss hypertension nutritional strategies and recommendations

HBP - HTN: BP of ≥140/90 mm Hg

Main strategies:
1. Maintaining healthy weight
2. ↓ sodium to

8

Describe and differentiate vitamin B12 malabsorption and pernicious anemia

(vita b12 def) Pernicious anemia—due to lack of the intrinsic factor (IF), which prevents B12 absoprtion
-Prevalence: uncommon, even in older adults
-Takes 3-6 yrs to develop

Symptoms:
-Large, undeveloped RBC
-Glossitis
-Tongue fissures
-Irreversible neurological symptoms

Definition and etiology
-Most commonly results from abnormal stomach function such as bacterial overgrowth
-B12 is not digested, absorbed, or bacteria may use B12 for own metabolism

Effects
-Irreversible neurological damage, walking & balance disturbances

9

What are the risk factors of constipation?

↓ fluid intake
↓ amounts of food
Medication
Iron supplements

10

What are the consequences of constipation?

possible diverticulitis

11

What are the treatment of constipation?

Nutritional remedies
↑ dietary fiber & fluids

12

Describe cognitive disorders consequences

Effects of cognitive disorders
-Confusion
-Anxiety
-Agitation
-Loss of oral muscular control
-Impairment of hunger/appetite regulation
-Changes in smell & taste
-Dental, chewing, & swallowing problems

13

Describe cognitive disorders nutrition intervention

Nutritional Interventions for Cognitive Disorders
-Ensuring food safety
-Safe use of kitchen tools and equipment
-Dietary focus
1. Nutrient-dense diet
2. Maintain hydration
3. Supply needed energy

Strategies to promote food & fluid intake
1. Maintain focus on eating
2. Provide plenty of time to eat
3. Serve finger foods
4. Encourage regular drinks between bites

14

Discuss low body weight

1. No consensus or universal definition for underweight in the frail elderly
2. Compare current weight to “usual” weight
3. Grades of Thinness
-Grade 1 = BMI 17-18.49
-Grade 2 = BMI 16-16.99
-Grade 3 = BMI

15

Describe dehydration

Definition of dehydration
-Physiological state in which cells lose water to the point of interfering w/ the metabolic processes
-Dehydration can be measured as % of body weight loss.

16

Describe dehydration consequences

1. ↑ resting heart rate
2. Susceptibility to development of UTI
3. Pneumonia
4. Pressure ulcers
5. Confusion, disorientation, dementia

17

Describe dehydration intervention

1. Beverages Contribute Nutrients + Fluid
2. Tea has flavonoids (antioxidants)
3. Milk has calcium, protein, riboflavin, & vitamin D
4. Cranberry juice may reduce UTI
5. Fruit & vegetable juices count toward fruit & vegetable servings

18

Describe rehydration

Rehydrate slowly
Guidelines
1. Provide 1/4 to 1/3 overall fluid deficit
2. Use water of 5% glucose solution
3. Thickened liquids count as fluid
4. Offering fluids hourly & w/ medication – achieve ↑ levels of hydration

19

Discuss problems nutrition treatment related to low body weight (etiology)

Etiology
1. Not problematic if person has always been thin
2. Weight cycling is problematic
3. In older adults, underweight is > serious than overweight
4. Protein-calorie malnutrition leads to underweight
5. Underlying causes
-Illness
-Poverty
-Functional decline

20

Discuss nutrition intervtentions for low body weight

MNT for a frail, elderly, malnourished person should consider:
1. Cals -> eat & exercise to build muscle mass & strength
2. Protein -> 1 to 1.5 g/kg
3. Water -> 1 mL/kcal, rehydrate slowly