Flashcards in Alcohol Metabolism Deck (55)
What are the consequences of alcoholism?
Fatty liver, hepatic disease (cirrhosis), and lactic acidosis
How much energy per gram does alcohol provide?
Does alcohol possess any nutrients?
Where is ethanol readily absorbed?
Throughout the entire GI tract
Where is ethanol primarily degraded?
In the liver
The liver converts ethanol into what?
Acetaldehyde then to acetate
Both steps of conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde then to acetate in the liver produce what?
What can acetate possibly turn into next?
What are the three enzyme systems that break down alcohol?
Alcohol dehydrogenase, MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system aka Cytochrome P-450 System), and catalase
What is the least active enzyme system for the breakdown of alcohol?
What is used in the presence of catalase for alcohol breakdown?
What enzyme is responsible for oxidizing ethanol into acetaldehyde?
What enzyme is responsible for oxidizing acetaldehyde into acetate?
NADPH is produced in which enzyme systems for alcohol breakdown?
Both alcohol dehydrogenase AND MEOS
What is the location of the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway?
Cytoplasm of liver cells
What is required for alcohol dehydrogenase to work?
At what point is alcohol dehydrogenase at 1/2 maximum velocity?
At cellular concentration of ethanol
At what point is alcohol dehydrogenase saturated?
At 3-4 times the Km
At what point can alcohol no longer be oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase?
Concentrations beyond 4 times Km
What is the toxic level of alcohol?
What is the reason that ethanol is able to enter the cells easily?
High lipid solubility
When alcohol dehydrogenase is saturated, what enzyme system must take over for breakdown of alcohol?
Which gender's alcohol dehydrogenase is less effective?
Having a lot of NADPH in the system due to alcohol metabolism can inhibit and affect what pathways?
Fat burning, gluconeogenesis, and Krebs
What types of compounds can MEOS oxidize?
Fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, steroids, barbiturate drugs
The MEOS system is associated with what location of the cell?
With MEOS, where are the electrons coming from to be donated to the P450?
What two things are added to the ethanol during the first step of MEOS to change it to acetaldehyde?
Electrons from NADPH and oxygen
Does MEOS directly produce NADH?
No; it creates acetaldehyde which eventually leads to the production of NADH indirectly