Alcohol Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry II Final > Alcohol Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohol Metabolism Deck (55)
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0

What are the consequences of alcoholism?

Fatty liver, hepatic disease (cirrhosis), and lactic acidosis

1

How much energy per gram does alcohol provide?

7kcal/gram

2

Does alcohol possess any nutrients?

No

3

Where is ethanol readily absorbed?

Throughout the entire GI tract

4

Where is ethanol primarily degraded?

In the liver

5

The liver converts ethanol into what?

Acetaldehyde then to acetate

6

Both steps of conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde then to acetate in the liver produce what?

NADH

7

What can acetate possibly turn into next?

Acetyl CoA

8

What are the three enzyme systems that break down alcohol?

Alcohol dehydrogenase, MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system aka Cytochrome P-450 System), and catalase

9

What is the least active enzyme system for the breakdown of alcohol?

Catalase

10

What is used in the presence of catalase for alcohol breakdown?

Hydrogen peroxide

11

What enzyme is responsible for oxidizing ethanol into acetaldehyde?

Alcohol dehydrogenase

12

What enzyme is responsible for oxidizing acetaldehyde into acetate?

Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

13

NADPH is produced in which enzyme systems for alcohol breakdown?

Both alcohol dehydrogenase AND MEOS

14

What is the location of the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway?

Cytoplasm of liver cells

15

What is required for alcohol dehydrogenase to work?

NAD

16

At what point is alcohol dehydrogenase at 1/2 maximum velocity?

At cellular concentration of ethanol

17

At what point is alcohol dehydrogenase saturated?

At 3-4 times the Km

18

At what point can alcohol no longer be oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase?

Concentrations beyond 4 times Km

19

What is the toxic level of alcohol?

50-100 mg/dL

20

What is the reason that ethanol is able to enter the cells easily?

High lipid solubility

21

When alcohol dehydrogenase is saturated, what enzyme system must take over for breakdown of alcohol?

MEOS

22

Which gender's alcohol dehydrogenase is less effective?

Females

23

Having a lot of NADPH in the system due to alcohol metabolism can inhibit and affect what pathways?

Fat burning, gluconeogenesis, and Krebs

24

What types of compounds can MEOS oxidize?

Fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, steroids, barbiturate drugs

25

The MEOS system is associated with what location of the cell?

Endoplasmic reticulum

26

With MEOS, where are the electrons coming from to be donated to the P450?

From NADPH

27

What two things are added to the ethanol during the first step of MEOS to change it to acetaldehyde?

Electrons from NADPH and oxygen

28

Does MEOS directly produce NADH?

No; it creates acetaldehyde which eventually leads to the production of NADH indirectly

29

What is known as being the "microsomal electron transport system"?

MEOS