Amino Acid Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry II Final > Amino Acid Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amino Acid Metabolism Deck (88)
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0

What is the location of amino acid metabolism?

Liver and peripheral tissues

1

Where are the majority of amino acids metabolized?

Liver

2

Are amino acids stored in the body?

No

3

How do we attain amino acids?

Diet and synthesis

4

Where can free amino acids be found?

Cells, blood, extracellular fluid

5

Do we have a larger amino acid pool or body protein?

Body protein

6

About how many grams of amino acids are in the amino acid pool?

100-200 grams

7

What percentage and amount of grams of protein can be found in the average 70 kg person?

15-20% or 12 kilograms

8

About what percentage of protein is found in the amino acid pool?

Less than 2%

9

About how much of the amino acid pool is found in intracellular skeletal muscle?

1/2

10

What type of transport system is used for amino acid transport?

Active transport systems (ATP)

11

Can the amino acid carriers be induced?

Yes

12

What can happen if a transporter ends up taking in a lot of one particular amino acid?

Intake of other amino acids can become limited

13

Are peptides or free amino acids more likely to be absorbed?

Peptides are absorbed better

14

Where are peptides specifically broken down into free amino acids for the blood?

Enterocytes

15

What must occur first to break down an amino acid?

Removal of the alpha-amino group (nitrogen)

16

The majority of nitrogen broken off of amino acids during the initial break down step becomes what compound?

Urea

17

Where does nitrogen broken off of amino acids get sent?

Liver for degradation

18

Can nitrogen be stored in the body?

No

19

Nitrogen is excreted from the body as what compound?

Urea

20

What are two reasons that nitrogen gets sent to the liver?

Too much protein has been eaten or for gluconeogenesis

21

Most amino acids transfer their alpha-amino group to what structure?

Alpha-ketoglutarate (amino acid acceptor)

22

What is the result of transamination?

Glutamate and alpha-keto acid

23

What is the required coenzyme for transamination?

Pyridoxal phosphate

24

Pyridoxal phosphate is a derivative of what vitamin?

Vitamin B6

25

What is transamination?

The transfer for the alpha-amino group of an amino acid to alpha-ketoglutarate

26

What enzyme is used for transamination?

Aminotransferases (transaminases)

27

What specific aminotransferase is used in muscle?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aka glutamate-pyruvate transaminases (GPT)

28

What is the specific aminotransferase used in the liver?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aka glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)

29

Exercising muscle produces a lot of what substance which pushes the reaction to make what final product?

Pyruvate, alanine