Flashcards in Amino Acid Metabolism Deck (88)
What is the location of amino acid metabolism?
Liver and peripheral tissues
Where are the majority of amino acids metabolized?
Are amino acids stored in the body?
How do we attain amino acids?
Diet and synthesis
Where can free amino acids be found?
Cells, blood, extracellular fluid
Do we have a larger amino acid pool or body protein?
About how many grams of amino acids are in the amino acid pool?
What percentage and amount of grams of protein can be found in the average 70 kg person?
15-20% or 12 kilograms
About what percentage of protein is found in the amino acid pool?
Less than 2%
About how much of the amino acid pool is found in intracellular skeletal muscle?
What type of transport system is used for amino acid transport?
Active transport systems (ATP)
Can the amino acid carriers be induced?
What can happen if a transporter ends up taking in a lot of one particular amino acid?
Intake of other amino acids can become limited
Are peptides or free amino acids more likely to be absorbed?
Peptides are absorbed better
Where are peptides specifically broken down into free amino acids for the blood?
What must occur first to break down an amino acid?
Removal of the alpha-amino group (nitrogen)
The majority of nitrogen broken off of amino acids during the initial break down step becomes what compound?
Where does nitrogen broken off of amino acids get sent?
Liver for degradation
Can nitrogen be stored in the body?
Nitrogen is excreted from the body as what compound?
What are two reasons that nitrogen gets sent to the liver?
Too much protein has been eaten or for gluconeogenesis
Most amino acids transfer their alpha-amino group to what structure?
Alpha-ketoglutarate (amino acid acceptor)
What is the result of transamination?
Glutamate and alpha-keto acid
What is the required coenzyme for transamination?
Pyridoxal phosphate is a derivative of what vitamin?
What is transamination?
The transfer for the alpha-amino group of an amino acid to alpha-ketoglutarate
What enzyme is used for transamination?
What specific aminotransferase is used in muscle?
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aka glutamate-pyruvate transaminases (GPT)
What is the specific aminotransferase used in the liver?
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aka glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)