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Biochemistry II Final > Ketogenesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ketogenesis Deck (37)
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1

Ketone bodies are a result of excess of what compound from fat burning?

Acetyl CoA

2

Ketone bodies "spill over" from which pathway?

Krebs

3

What is the location of ketogenesis?

Mitochondria (of the liver)

4

Ketogenesis is common during a time of depletion of which macronutrient?

Carbohydrates

5

Ketones can be oxidized to make what compound?

ATP

6

Ketones are created from what structure?

Fats

7

By burning ketones, tissues avoid relying on what compounds for energy?

Amino acids

8

Elevation of ketone bodies can be detected where?

Blood & urine

9

When you don't eat enough carbohydrates, what does the body do to make up for it?

Burns more fat to make carbohydrates (gluconeogenesis)

10

What are the two ketogenic amino acids?

Lysine and leucine (Lindsey Lohan)

11

What are three examples of ketones?

Acetoacetate, acetone, and beta hydroxybutyrate

12

What is a byproduct of ketones?

Acetone

13

Ketogenesis has what effect on gluconeogenesis?

Inhibition

14

What pathway yields a lot of acetyl CoA therefore stimulating ketogenesis?

Fat oxidation (OHOT)

15

What effect does acetyl CoA produced by OHOT have on pyruvate dehydrogenase?

Inhibits

16

What effect does acetyl CoA produced by OHOT have on pyruvate carboxylase?

Stimulation

17

What enzyme is the rate limiting step of synthesis of ketone bodies?

HMG CoA Synthase (found in cholesterol synthesis)

18

What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis?

HMG CoA Reductase

19

Where can a large supply of HMG CoA synthase be found?

Mitochondria in the liver

20

What effect does glucagon have on liver glycolysis?

Inhibition

21

What effect does glucagon have on liver fat burning?

Stimulation

22

OHOT makes a lot of what reducing agent?

NADH (less NAD+)

23

What effect does a low amount of carbohydrates have on gluconeogenesis?

Stimulation

24

What structure can be stolen from the Krebs Cycle to make glucose in response to low carbohydrates?

Oxaloacetate

25

What is the reason that acetyl CoA can become in excess from OHOT?

Not enough oxaloacetate stolen from Krebs to combine with it

26

What effect does ketogenesis have on gluconeogenesis?

Inhibition (less proteins are consumed)

27

Do ketone bodies need a carrier in order to be transported in the blood?

No

28

What is a benefit of ketogenesis when glucose levels are low due to a possible fasting state?

Glucose is then spared

29

What is a precursor for both ketone bodies and cholesterol?

HMG CoA

30

Ketone bodies and cholesterol both start from what structure?

Acetyl CoA