Flashcards in Ketogenesis Deck (37)
Ketone bodies are a result of excess of what compound from fat burning?
Ketone bodies "spill over" from which pathway?
What is the location of ketogenesis?
Mitochondria (of the liver)
Ketogenesis is common during a time of depletion of which macronutrient?
Ketones can be oxidized to make what compound?
Ketones are created from what structure?
By burning ketones, tissues avoid relying on what compounds for energy?
Elevation of ketone bodies can be detected where?
Blood & urine
When you don't eat enough carbohydrates, what does the body do to make up for it?
Burns more fat to make carbohydrates (gluconeogenesis)
What are the two ketogenic amino acids?
Lysine and leucine (Lindsey Lohan)
What are three examples of ketones?
Acetoacetate, acetone, and beta hydroxybutyrate
What is a byproduct of ketones?
Ketogenesis has what effect on gluconeogenesis?
What pathway yields a lot of acetyl CoA therefore stimulating ketogenesis?
Fat oxidation (OHOT)
What effect does acetyl CoA produced by OHOT have on pyruvate dehydrogenase?
What effect does acetyl CoA produced by OHOT have on pyruvate carboxylase?
What enzyme is the rate limiting step of synthesis of ketone bodies?
HMG CoA Synthase (found in cholesterol synthesis)
What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis?
HMG CoA Reductase
Where can a large supply of HMG CoA synthase be found?
Mitochondria in the liver
What effect does glucagon have on liver glycolysis?
What effect does glucagon have on liver fat burning?
OHOT makes a lot of what reducing agent?
NADH (less NAD+)
What effect does a low amount of carbohydrates have on gluconeogenesis?
What structure can be stolen from the Krebs Cycle to make glucose in response to low carbohydrates?
What is the reason that acetyl CoA can become in excess from OHOT?
Not enough oxaloacetate stolen from Krebs to combine with it
What effect does ketogenesis have on gluconeogenesis?
Inhibition (less proteins are consumed)
Do ketone bodies need a carrier in order to be transported in the blood?
What is a benefit of ketogenesis when glucose levels are low due to a possible fasting state?
Glucose is then spared
What is a precursor for both ketone bodies and cholesterol?