Anatomy 2 -Cardiovascular System • The Heart Flashcards Preview

Second Year - Anatomy CA21007 > Anatomy 2 -Cardiovascular System • The Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 2 -Cardiovascular System • The Heart Deck (56):
1

Location of the heart

In the mediastinum between the lungs

2

The base of the heart is what portion? And located where?

It is the broad superior portion and is located behind the rest of the heart

3

The heart tapers to a point known as...

The apex

4

The apex is what portion of the heart?

The inferior portion

5

The four chambers of the heart are

The right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle

6

System related to the right side of the heart

Pulmonary system

7

What side of the heart contains deoxygenated blood?

The right side

8

Blood from the right side of the heart goes where and undergoes what?

It goes to the lungs and undergoes gas exchange

9

What system is related to the left side of the heart?

The systemic system

10

What side of the heart contains oxygenated blood?

The left side

11

The internal features of the heart are

The pericardium and the heart wall

12

What makes up the pericardium and the heart wall

Pericardial cavity, parietal pericardium, visceral pericardium, myocardium and endocardium

13

Fibrous pericardium function

Allows the heart to beat in a frictionless motion

14

Serous pericardium function

Lines the sac, covers the heart and allows the heart to beat in a smooth motion

15

What is the myocardium

A thick muscular layer which is part off the fibrous skeleton

16

What is the endocardium

The smooth lining of the heart

17

What is the fossa ovalis

A thumb shaped impression on the right atrium

18

What was the function of the fossa ovalis

It was an opening during development that allowed direct blood flow from the right to the left atrium because the lungs were not developed

19

Muscular ridges in the atrium are known as

Masculi pectinati

20

Muscular ridges in the ventricles are known as

Trabecular carneae

21

Rounded muscular projections found in the ventricles are known as

Papillary muscles

22

Function of the chordae tendineae

Muscles attached along the edges of the valves to prevent the vales from opening up under high pressure

23

External features of the heart

Superior vena cava, ascending aorta, right auricle, right atrium, right ventricle, inferior vena cava, apex of the heart, left ventricle, left auricle, left atria, pulmonary trunk, left pulmonary artery, left pulmonary veins, coronary sinus, right pulmonary artery, right pulmonary veins and the arch of the aorta

24

What does the pulmonary trunk branch into

The pulmonary artery

25

What arteries supply the heart with blood

The coronary arteries. The left coronary artery branches into the circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular branch

26

Veins that drain the heart tissue

The cardiac veins

27

What are the three cardiac veins

The great, the middle and the small

28

Where is the great cardiac vein located

The anterior aspect of the heart

29

Where are the middle and small cardiac veins located

On the posterior aspect of the heart.

30

What vessels return blood to the coronary sinus

The middle and small cardiac veins

31

Where are the valves located

Behind the sternum

32

Left atrium valve is

Bicuspid

33

Right atrium valve is

Tricuspid

34

The semi-lunar valves are the

Pulmonary and aortic valves

35

Function of valves

To make sure blood flows smoothly and there is no back flow of blood

36

What muscles stop the valves from opening under high pressure

Papillary muscles

37

Where can the aortic valve closing be heard

2nd intercostal space on the right

38

Where can the tricuspid valve be heard closing

5th intercostal space on the right

39

Where can the pulmonary valve be heard closing

2nd intercostal space on the left

40

Where can the mitral valve (apex) be heard closing

5th intercostal space in the left, 3 fingers from the midline

41

What is the cardiac cycle made up of

One complete contraction and relaxation of all chambers of the heart

42

What occurs together during the cardiac cycle

Atrial systole and ventricular diastole
Atrial diastole and ventricular systole

43

Myogenic cells can

Generate their own heart beat

44

What is the heart beat regulated by

The cardiac conduction system

45

Components of the cardiac conduction system

SA node, a fibrous skeleton, AV node, AV bundle, purkinjie fibres and right and left bundle branches

46

What is the pacemaker of the heart

SA node

47

Function of the fibrous skeleton

Insulates the atria from the ventricles

48

Function of the AV node

It is a small bundle in the right atrium and communicates with the AV bundle

49

What is the pathway for signals produced from the AV node

AV bundle

50

Function of the right and left bundle branches

They are divisions of the AV bundle that enter the interventicular septum and descend the apex

51

What is the heart rate measured from

The pulse

52

Normal heart rate for infants, young female adult and young male adult

Infant - 120 bmp
YFA - 72-80 bmp
YMA - 64-72 bmp

53

Where is blood pressure measured

The brachial artery

54

Normal blood pressure value

120/80 mm Hg

55

What is the systolic pressure of BP

Ventricular systole

56

What the diastolic pressure in BP

Ventricular diastole