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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (97):
1

Where does the hip fibrous capsule attach inferiorly?

The intertrochanteric line

2

Where does eversion and inversion of the foot occur?

At the subtalar and midtarsal joints

3

Where do the quadriceps insert?

The tibial tuberosity

4

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the thigh?

The femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4)

5

Iliopsoas?

Iliacus and psoas major

6

The muscles in which compartment of the thigh are responsible for adduction of the hip?

Muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh

7

Which nerve supplies the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh?

The obturator nerve

8

Which nerves make up the femoral nerve?

L2, L3, L4

9

Which nerves make up the obturator nerve?

L2, L3, L4

10

Which nerves make up the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3

11

Which nerve supplies the lateral compartment of the leg?

The superficial fibular (branch of sciatic

12

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the leg?

The deep fibular

13

Which nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the leg?

The tibial nerve

14

What doe the gluteus maximus do?

Extension of the hip

15

What do the gluteus medias and gluteus minimus do?

External rotators of the hip

16

Pudendal nerve

Main nerve of the perineum

17

Nerve responsible for sensory over the back of the thigh?

Posterior cutaneous nerve (next to sciatic nerve)

18

Nerve supply to the intrinsic muscles of the foot?

Tibial nerve

19

L1/L2 myotome

hip flexion

20

L3/4 myotome

knee extension

21

L5

foot dorsiflexion and EHL

22

S1/S2

ankle plantarfelxion

23

Blood supply to the femoral head

-Intramedullary artery of shaft of femur
-Medial & lateral circumflex branches of profunda femoris
-Artery of ligamentum teres

24

Purpose of the facet joints

Provide stability whilst allowing movement

25

Which bone has the dens process?

C2

26

Name the vertebrae with no body?

C1

27

Name the ligaments you would find in the spine

-Anterior longitudinal ligament
-Posterior longitudinal ligament
-Ligamentum flavum
-Supraspinatus ligament
-Infraspinatous ligament

28

Origin of the trapezius?

Spinous processes (--> T12)

29

Insertion of the trapezius?

Occiput and spine of scapula

30

Nerve supply of the trapezius?

Accessory nerve (CNXI)

31

Function of the trapezius?

Elevates and depresses scapula
Retracts scapula

32

Origin of latissiumus dorsi?

Spinous processes and pelvis

33

Insertion of latissiumus dorsi?

Humerus

34

Function of latissimus dorsi?

Adducts
Extends
Internal rotation of humerus

35

Nerve supply to latissimus dorsi?

C6/C7/C8

36

Origin of the Rhomboid minor?

Spinous processes C7/T1

37

Origin of the Rhomboid major?

Spinous processes T2-T5

38

Insertion of the rhomboid major and minor?

Scapula

39

Innervation of the rhomboid major and minor?

Dorsal scapula nerve (C3/C4)

40

Function of rhomboid major and minor?

Keeps scapula against thoracic wall
Retracts scapula

41

Origin of levatus scapularis?

Transverse process of C1

42

Insertion of levator scapularis?

Superior angle of scpaula

43

Innervation of levator scapularis?

Branches of C4/C5

44

Function of levator scapularis?

Elevates scapularis

45

Where does the spinal cord exit the skull?

Foramen magnum

46

Nerves in the cervical spine

Arms

47

Nerves in the thoracic region

Middle of the body

48

Nerves in the lumbar spine

Legs

49

Sacral nerves

control the posterior aspects of the legs and organ functions of the pelvis

50

Descending motor tracts

Crossed pyramidal or lateral cerebrospinal tract
Uncrossed pyramidal or anterior cerebrospinal

51

What level do pyramidal/ lateral cerebrospinal tracts cross?

Cross at medullary level and then descend the spine on the contralateral side of the cord

52

What side do uncrossed pyramidal/anterior cerebrospinal tracts descend?

Uncrossed pyramidal/anterior cerebrospinal tracts descend on the ipsilateral side of the cord and then cross at the same level that they exit = exits on the contralateral side

53

What do the ventral and dorsal roots form?

They join to become the nerve root

54

What do the posterior rami serve?

The posterior rami serve the intrinsic muscle of the back and the strip of skin sensation in the centre of the back

55

What do the anterior rami serve?

They form the nerve supply to the rest of the body/limbs

56

Where do the spinocerebellar tracts ascend and what do they carry information relate to?

The spinocerebellar tracts ascend on the ipsilateral side and enter the cerebellu,,. They carry information relating to proprioception

57

Where do the lateral and anterior spinothalamic tracts ascend and what information do they carry?

The ascend on the ipsilateral side before crossing to the contralateral side and enter the thalamus. They carry information relating to pain and temperature

58

Where do the posterior columns (fascicula gracilis of Goll and fasiculus cuneatus of Burdoch) ascend and what do they carry?

They ascend on the ipsilateral side and carry information relating to fine touch and proprioception

59

Nerves you'll find in the cauda equina

L2-L5
S1-S5
Coccygeal nerve

60

Where do the nerves from the cauda equina innervate?

They innervate the pelvic organs and lower limbs

61

Motor function of the cauda equina?

Hips, knees, ankles, feet, internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter

62

Sensory function of the cauda equina?

Hips, knees, ankles, feet, Perineum and, partially, parasympathetic innervation of the bladder

63

Batsons venous complex

A network of valveless veins.
Connects the deep pelvic veins and the thoracic veins (draining the inferior end of the urinary bladder, breast and prostate) to the internal vertebral plexus. This has serious complications r.e haematological spread of carcinomas of the prostate

64

Garden Classification of Femur Fractures?

Garden 1: incomplete fracture, undisplaced
Garden 2: complete, undisplaced
Garden 3: complete, incompletely displaced
Garden 4: complete, completely displaced

65

What passes through the transverse foraminae?

The vertebral artery, vein and nerve fibres

66

Movements of the atlanto-occipital joint?

Flexion/extension
Lateral extensions

67

Movements of atlanto-dens joint?

Rotations

68

Which part of the annulus fibrosis is thin?

The posterior part especially

69

Where does the posterior tibialis insert?

The navicular tuberosity and the medial and middle cuneiforms

70

Which tendon is the primary stabiliser of the medial longitudinal arch?

The posterior tibialis

71

Movements produced by the posterior tibialis tendon?

Inversion and plantar flexion

72

Risk factors for posterior tibialis dysfunction?

Obese, middle aged female
Diabetes, hypertension
Steroid injection
Flat foot
Seronegative arthropathies
Flat foot
Due to a tendinosis of unknown aetiology

73

Clinical signs of tibialis posterior dysfunction

Flat foot
Swelling posterior to medial malleolus - very specific
Change in foot shape
Diminshed walking ability/balance
Dislike of uneven surfaces
More noticeable hallux valgus
Lateral wall "impingement" pain

74

Flat foot and diminshed walking ability/balance

Posterior tibialis dysfunction

75

Type I TPD

No deformity, swelling

76

Type II TPD:

Deformity, too many toes, cannot single heel raise

77

Type III and IV TPD:

Deformity, fixed forefoot abduction, rigid hindfoot valgus, deltoid ligament compromise, mortise signs, ankle pain

78

Surgery used to fix pes cavus?

Soft tissue release
Tendon transfer
Calcaneal osteotomy
Arthrodesis

79

ATFL and CFL

Anterior talofibular ligament and calcaneofibular ligament : lateral ligaments, usually involved in ankle sprains

80

Grading of ankle sprains

Gd1-3, grade 3 is complete rupture

81

Distal fibula fracture with no medial malleolus fractue or deltoid ligament rupture treatment?

This is stable
Treatment is boot or cast

82

Distal fibula fracture with medial malleolus fracture or deltoid ligament rupture treatment?

This is not stable
Treatment is pin/nails etc

83

5th metatarsal injury

Very common, inversion injury
1) Avulsion fracture by PERONEUS BREVIS (moon boot)
2) Jones fracture (POOR BLOOD SUPPLY, 25% risk non-union)
3) Proximal shaft (common site for stress fracture)

84

How could you fracture talus?

Forced dorsiflexion/rapid deceleration

85

How could you fracture calcaneus?

Falling from a height

86

Tinel's test positive for Baxter's nerve

Plantar fasciitis

87

Start-up pain after rest
Can be worse after exercise
Fullness or swelling, pain of plantarmedial aspect of heel

Plantar fasciits

88

"Heel spurs"
"Heel pad pain syndrome"

Plantar fasciitis

89

Causes of plantar fasciitis

Physical overload:excessive exercise, excessive weight
Seronegative arthropathy
Diabetes
Abnormal foot shape-planovalgus or cavovarus
Imrpoper footwear

90

Treatment for plantar fasciitis?

NSAIDS
Night splints
Taping
Heel cups or medial arch support
Physiotherapy - eccentric exercise programme
Steroid injection
Surgery - 50% success, better if acute onset
Usually self-limiting over 18-24 months
-Self managment

91

Operative management for Hallux valgus and indications

Indications – failure of non-op, pain, lesser toe deformities, lifestyle limitation, overlapping, ulceration, functional limitation
Many osteotomies (not core)
Aim to realign the hallux and decrease the HV angle
Correct any lesser toe deformities at same time (soft tissue releases, osteotomies, fusions)
-Break the bone and move the head laterally

92

Osteoarthritis of the first MTPJ

Hallux rigidus

93

Operative management of Hallux Rigidus

Joint replacement
Fusion

94

Hindfoot in rheumatoid arthritis

Talocalcaneal interosseous ligament
Unstable subtalar joint, calcaneus drifts into valgus
Medial arch collapses, flat feet
Often require multiple joint fusions

95

Morton's Neuroma

Degenerative fibrosis of common digital nerve near its bifurcation
-Get forefoot pain (metatarsalgia)

96

Tendon-Achilles teninosis

Talocalcaneal interosseous ligament
Unstable subtalar joint, calcaneus drifts into valgus
Medial arch collapses, flat feet
Often require multiple joint fusions

97

Surgery for claw, hammer and mallet toes?

Tenotomies, tendon transfer, fusions (PIP) or amputation