Pathology of Soft Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology of Soft Tissues Deck (27):
1

Duchenne inheritance

X-linked recessive

2

Becker inheritence

X-linked recessive

3

Limb girdle inheritance

Autosomal recessive

4

Fascioscapulohumeral inheritance

Dominant

5

Scapulohumeral inheritance

Autosommal recessive

6

Oculopharyngeal inheritance

Dominant

7

Myotonic dystrophy inheritance

Dominant

8

Mutations in dystrophin gene on long arm chromosome X

Alterations in anchorage of actin cytoskeleton to basement membrane

Fibres liable to tearing

Uncontrolled Ca2+ entry into cells

DMD

9

Muscle weakness
Myotonia
Non-muscle features (frontal balding, cardiomyopathy, low intelligence)

Myotonic Dystrophy

10

Atrophy of type 1 fibres

Central nuclei

Ring fibres

Fibre necrosis

Fibrofatty replacement

Myotonic dystrophy

11

Endomysial lymphocytic infiltrate, invasion of muscle by CD8 + T lymphocytes

Polymyositis

12

T-cells in polymyositis?

CD8+

13

Upper body erythema, swelling of eyelids with purple discolouration

Polymyositis

14

Weakness
Proptosis
Fatigue
Dysphagia

Myasthenia Gravis

15

Classical triad of rhabdomyolysis?

Myalgias
Generalised weakness
Darkened urine

16

Myoglobinuria
Hyperkalaemia
Necrosis & shock

Rhabdomyolysis
Outcome:
Acute Renal Failure (breakdown products of skeletal muscle and myoglobin are harmful to the kidneys)

Hypovolaemia & hyperkalaemia

Metabolic acidosis

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

17

Outcome of rhabdomyolysis?

Acute renal failure
Hypovolaemia
Hyperkalemia
Metabolic acidosis
Disseminated intravascular coagulation

18

Drugs which can cause SLE?

Hydralazine
Pracainamide

19

Visceral lesions of SLE which type of hypersensitivity?

Type 3

20

Haematological effects of SLE mediated by which type of sensitivity?

Type II

21

Clinical features of PAN

Clinical features
Non-specific +/- organ specific features such as hypertension, haematuria, abdominal pain, melaena, diarrhoea, mononeuritis multiplex, rash, cough, dyspnoea

22

Clinical features
Non-specific +/- organ specific features such as hypertension, haematuria, abdominal pain, melaena, diarrhoea, mononeuritis multiplex, rash, cough, dyspnoea

PAN, lol

23

Biopsy; fibrinoid necrosis of vessels
Serum contains pANCA (perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody)

PAN

24

Biopsy findings of PAN

Fibrinoid necrosis
pANCA

25

Causes of death because of scleroderma

Renal failure secondary to malignant hypertension
Severe respiratory compromise
Cor pulmonale
Cardiac failure or arrhythmias secondary to myocardial fibrosis

26

Scleroderma and fibrosis of organs

Excessive fibrosis of organs and tissues (excessive collagen production)

Skin – tight, tethered,  joint movement

GI tract – fibrous replacement of muscularis

Heart – pericarditis and myocardial fibrosis

Lungs – interstitial fibrosis

Kidneys – affects arteries, leads to hypertension

Musculoskeletal system – polyarteritis and myositis

27

Crest syndrome

Calcinosis
Raynaud’s
Oesophageal dysfunction
Sclerodactyly
Telangectasia