Anatomy 4 - Intro to the Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

Second Year - Anatomy CA21007 > Anatomy 4 - Intro to the Musculoskeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 4 - Intro to the Musculoskeletal System Deck (61):
1

Components of the axial skeleton

Cranium, vertebrae, hyoid, sternum and ribs

2

Components of the appendicular skeleton

Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpals, femur, phlanges, patella, tibia, fibula and metatarsals

3

Where would you find compact bone tissue

The outer layer of all bones

4

What type of bone is found on the inside of bones

Spongey or cancellous bone

5

What is contained within cancellous bone

Trabeculae

6

What are trabeculae

Lamellae that are arranged as rods or plates

7

What is found between the trabeculae

Red bone marrow

8

Different classes of bones

Long bone, short bone, flat bone, irregular bone and sesamoid

9

Characteristic of long bones

Their height is greater than their width

10

Characteristic of a short bone

Usually pretty compact, their height and width are usually the same

11

Example of a long bone

Humorous, phalanges and metacarpals

12

Example of a short bone

The bones found in the wrist and ankle

13

Characteristic of flat bones

They are thin sheets of bone

14

Example of a flat bone

The side of the skull and the scapula

15

Characteristic of an irregular bone

They dont have any... they're irregular

16

Example of an irregular bone

The vertebrae

17

Characteristic of a sesamoid bone

They are embedded in a tendon

18

Example of a sesamoid

The patella and the bone underneath the metatarsal (tarsal bone)

19

Three classifications of joints

Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial

20

Describe fibrous joints

Made up of fibrous material that connects the bones, exhibit little or no movement and have no joint cavity

21

Describe cartilaginous joints

Made up of cartilage between the bones, they exhibit little or no movement and have no joint cavity

22

Six sub classifications of synovial joints

Plane (gliding), condyloid, saddle, hinge, pivot and ball and socket

23

Functions of muscles

Movement of the skeleton and organs, posture and body support and heat production

24

The three muscle types are

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle

25

Example of smooth muscle

The intestines

26

Example of cardiac muscle

The heart

27

Example of skeletal muscle

The biceps

28

Three categories of muscles are

Fusiform, broad sheet and pennate

29

Description of fusiform muscles

Tendon on each side with a belly of muscle in the middle

30

Description of broad sheet muscles

Have flat sheet of tendon running along the length of them with muscle fibres coming off of one side

31

The name for the flat sheet of tendon in broad sgheet muscles is

Aponeurosis

32

Example of fusiform muscle

Biceps brachii

33

Example of broad sheet muscle

External abdominal obliques

34

Three types of pennate muscle

Unipennate, bipennate and multipennate

35

Description of unipennate

Has a tendon running along the length of it with muscle fibres attached to one side

36

Description of bipennate

Has a tendon running down the middle with muscle fibres coming off each side

37

Description of multipennate

Has many tendons running through it with muscle fibres running diagonally from all the tendons

38

Example of unipennate muscle

Flexor halluces longus

39

Example of bipennate muscle

Rector femoris

40

Example of multipennate muscle

Deltoid

41

Prime movers/agonists definition

Muscles which move a joint

42

Synergists definition

Assist work of prime movers

43

Muscles who itch oppose the prime movers are known as

Antagonists

44

What muscles contract to prov ide support, hold a joint in palace and maintain posture

Stabilisers/fixators

45

Description of plane joints

Permit gliding and sliding, opposed surfaces of the bones are almost always flat and dithery have limited movement

46

Description of hinge joints

Permit flexion and extension in the sagittal plane, joint capsules are thin and the bones are held strongly in place by collateral ligaments

47

Description of saddle joints

Permit abduction, adduction, flexion and extension in the sagittal and frontal planes and circumduction can be performed

48

Description of a condyloid joint

Permits flexion and extension as well as abduction and adduction, movement in one plane is greater than the other and can perform circumduction but not greatly

49

Description of ball and socket joints

Allow for movement in multiple planes and axis, permit flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, medial and lateral rotation and circuumduction

50

Description of pivot joints

Permits rotation around a central axis

51

Which joints are uniaxial

Hinge joints and pivot joints

52

Which joints are biaxial

Saddle joints and condyloid joints

53

Which joints are multiaxial

Ball and socket joints

54

What type of joints are nonaxial

Plane joints

55

Example of plane joint

Acromioclavicular (between the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula)

56

Example of hinge joint

Elbow joint

57

Example of saddle joint

Carpo-metacarpal joint (joint at the base of the thumb)

58

Example of condyloid joint

Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle joints)

59

Example of ball and socket joint

Hip joint

60

Example of pivot joint

Atlanto-axial joint (C1 and C2 vertebrae)

61

Draw and label a synovial joint

-Bony articular surface
-Hyaline cartilage
-Ligaments (inelastic, tough, provide stability, attached to bones surrounding joints)
-Capsule (surrounds joint)
-Synovial membrane (surrounds joint, lines capsule, secretes synovial fluid)
-Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid)