Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology SOH > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (110):
1

Bony orbit - apex

Optic canal

2

Bony orbit - roof

Mainly frontal bone

3

Bony orbit - floor

Mainly maxilla

4

Bony orbit - medial wall

Mainly ethmoid bone

5

Bony orbit - lateral wall

Mainly sphenoid bone

6

Orbital rim

Base of the bony orbit
Helps protect the eye from direct trauma

7

Blowout fracture - which 2 bones are most likely to be affected

Ethmoid bone
Maxilla

8

Fractured zygoma causes which visual abnormality?

Diplopia (double vision)
- zygoma normally attaches to suspensory ligaments which help support the eyeball and hold it up

9

Tarsus

Eyelid

10

What is the name of the conjunctiva which covers the internal eyelids?

Palpebral conjunctiva

11

Where are tarsal glands located

Embedded in the tarsi

12

Function of tarsal glands

Lubricates the edges of the eyelids

13

Orbicularis oculi - function

Orbits around the ocular area and allows eye closing

14

Which nerve supplies orbicularis oculi

CN VII

15

2 parts of orbicularis oculi

Orbital part
Palpebral part

16

Orbicularis oculi - orbital part

Used to close eyes tightly
(screw up eyes)

17

Orbicularis oculi - palpebral part

Used to gently close eyes
(blinking)

18

Which muscle elevates the eyelid

Levator palpebrae superioris

19

Mulars muscle

Attaches from the tendon of LPS to the superior eyelid
It assists LPS in elevating the eyelid

20

Function of meibomian glands

Modified sebaceous glands
Prevent tears from evaporating

21

Where is the lacrimal gland located?

Just below the lateral aspect of the eyebrow

22

Sclera - definition

White area of the eye
Contains collagen fibres arranged like a meshwork

23

What is the conjunctiva which covers the sclera called?

Bulbar conjunctiva

24

Limbus

Junction between the cornea and sclera

25

Lacrimal punctum

Black dot on the lower eyelid
This is where lacrimal fluid drains in to

26

Which is more vascular: bulbar or palpebral conjunctiva?

Palpebral

27

The conjunctiva covers the cornea - true or false?

False

28

Function of the conjunctiva

Defensive barrier to foreign bodies
Good at healing lacerations in the eye

29

Iris

The part of the eye which gives your eye colour
Controls diameter of pupil

30

Pupil

Black central hole where light passes through to get to the retina

31

Cornea

Translucent (clear)
Avascular
Bulge
Collagen fibres are precisely arranged (optical clarity)

32

Which structure of the eye do you get most optical power from?

Cornea

33

Outer layer of the eye - type

Fibrous layer

34

Outer layer of the eye - constituents

Sclera
Cornea

35

Middle layer of the eye - type

Uvea
(vascular layer)

36

Middle layer of the eye - constituents

Iris
Ciliary body
Choroid

37

Inner layer of the eye - type

Retina

38

Inner layer of the eye - constituents

Optic disc
Macula
Fovea

39

Retina - function

The posterior aspect of the eye which receives and starts to interpret light coming into the eye

40

What is the pathway for the direction of light passing through the retina?

Ganglion cells (anteriorly) -->
Photoreceptors (posteriorly)

41

What is the direction of signal transmission in the retina?

Posterior -> anterior direction
The signal is generated by photoreceptors
Signal is sent to ganglion cells
Optic nerve is formed

42

The retina has pain and light receptors. True or False?

False
- the retina has light receptors only
- if something is wrong it just flashes lights (looks like camera flashes)

43

Fundus location

Back of the eye

44

Which area of the eye is known as the blind spot?

Optic disc
- there are no photoreceptors in this area

45

Where does the optic nerve form?

Optic disc

46

Optic disc

Blind spot

47

Macula - function

Specialised or acute vision
- lots of cones here

48

Fovea - location

In the centre of the macula

49

Fovea - function

For most acute vision
- cones found in high density

50

The optic disc sits nasally/temporally?

Nasally

51

The macula sits nasally/temporally?

Temporally

52

How do you differentiate veins from arteries on a fundoscopy image?

Veins are bigger and thicker
Arteries are smaller and thinner

53

Layers of the retina - posterior layer

Photoreceptors (rods and cones)

54

Layers of the retina - middle layer

Ganglion cells

55

Layers of the retina - anterior layer

Axons of the ganglion cells

56

Anterior segment - location

In front of the lens

57

Anterior segment - anterior chamber

Between the cornea and the iris
Contains aqueous humour

58

Anterior segment - posterior chamber

Between the iris and suspensory ligaments (zonule fibres)
Contains aqueous humour

59

Posterior segment - location

Behind the lens
Contains vitreous body

60

Arterial blood supply pathway

Common carotid artery -->
Internal carotid artery -->
Ophthalamic artery -->
Central retinal artery and ciliary artery

61

Ciliary artery

Supplies the uvea

62

Which artery supplies the optic nerve head?

Posterior ciliary artery

63

Central retinal artery

Passes inside the optic nerve
It is an end artery
- if it becomes blocked then there is no blood supply to the retina leading to ischaemia of the retina

64

Which artery supplies the majority of the retina?

Central retinal artery

65

What causes red eyes when photo is taken with flash

Ciliary artery

66

Pathway of venous drainage of the eye

Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins ->
Superior ophthalmic vein ->
Cavernous sinus ->
Superficial vein of the face

67

Which vein drains the retina?

Central retinal vein

68

Everything from the right visual field hits the eye at the ____ retina of the right eye but the _____ retina of the left eye

1. Nasal
2. Temporal

69

The temporal retina of both eyes stays MEDIAL/LATERAL?

Lateral
- i.e. doesn't cross over at the optic chiasma

70

The nasal retina of both eyes stays MEDIAL/LATERAL?

Medial

71

Crossing over at the optic chiasma occurs with the nasal retina OR temporal retina ?

Nasal retina

72

Light from objects in the right visual field is processed by the ____ primary visual cortex?

Left

73

Light from objects in the lower visual field is processed by the ____ primary visual cortex

Upper part

74

Blink reflex - sensory (afferent) limb

Picks up the sensation that is being touched
AP are conducted from cornea -> trigeminal ganglion -> pons

75

Blink reflex - central connections between which 2 CN's?

CNV and CNVII

76

Blink reflex - motor (efferent) limb

APs conducted via CNVII -> eyelid part of orbicular oculi.
this results in a blink

77

Where does the synapse occur in the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk

Superior cervical ganglia

78

What causes wide eye opening? (sympathetic or parasympathetic)

Sympathetic

79

What focuses the lens for near vision ? (sympathetic or parasympathetic)

Parasympathetic

80

What focuses the lens for far vision ? (sympathetic or parasympathetic)

Sympathetics

81

______ nerves dilate the pupil

Sympathetic

82

_____ nerves constrict the pupil

Parasympathetic

83

What causes lacrimation reflex tear production to occur ? (sympathetic or parasympathetic)

Parasympathetic

84

Dilated pupils allow MORE/LESS light to reach the retina?

More

85

Which muscles are responsible for dilating the pupil? and where are they located?

Dilator pupillae muscles
Location: around the external circumference of the iris

86

Constricted pupils allow MORE/LESS light to reach the retina?

Less

87

In dim light what happens to the pupil?

It dilates

88

In bright light what happens to the pupil?

It constricts

89

Mydratic pupil

a non physiologically dilated pupil

90

Mitotic pupil

A non physiologically constricted pupil

91

Which muscles are responsible for constricting the pupil? and where are they located?

Sphincter pupillae muscles
Location: around the internal circumference of the iris

92

Pupillary light reflex - shine torch into one eye, what happens to that eye?

CNII senses this and CN III causes pupil to constrict (direct light reflex)

93

Pupillary light reflex - shine a torch into one eye, what happens to the OTHER eye?

CN III causes pupil to constrict (consensual light reflex)

94

How does the lens attach to the ciliary body?

Suspensory ligaments (zonules)

95

What is another name for suspensory ligaments?

Zonules

96

What is the function of the ciliary body?

Produces aqueous humour

97

What happens to the ciliary muscle, suspensory ligaments and lens in far vision?

Ciliary muscle relaxes
Suspensory ligament tightens
Lens flattens
- to focus on object in the distance

98

What happens to the ciliary muscle, suspensory ligaments and lens in near vision?

Ciliary muscle contracts
Suspensory ligament relaxes
Lens becomes spherical
- to focus on near objects

99

Lens is spherical for NEAR/FAR vision?

Near

100

Lens is flat for NEAR/FAR vision?

Far

101

Which CN controls pupillary constriction?

CN III

102

Where is the lacrimal gland located?

Below the lateral aspect of the eyebrow

103

What does the lacrimal gland produce?

Produces lacrimal fluid (tears)

104

Lacrimal gland is controlled by which cranial nerve?

CNVII

105

Which direction does lacrimal fluid flow?

Temporal -> nasal lacrimal duct

106

Where does lacrimal fluid drain?

Punctum (black dot on top of the lacrimal papillae)

107

Lacrimal fluid always runs into the nose - true or false?

True

108

What is the function of lysozyme in lacrimal fluid?

Antibacterial properties

109

which CN tells the brain that the eye needs tears?

CNV

110

Which CN stimulates the lacrimal gland to produce tears?

CNVII